unit 9 part 2

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33 Terms

1

sex

in psychology, the biologically influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.

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2

gender

in psychology, the socially influenced characteristics by which people define boy, girl, man, and woman.

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3

aggression

any physical or verbal behavior intended to harm someone physically or emotionally

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4

relational aggression

an act of aggression (physical or verbal) intended to harm a person’s relationship or social standing.

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5

role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.

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6

gender role

a set of expected behaviors, attitudes, and traits for males or for females.

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7

gender identity

our sense of being male, female, or some combination of the two.

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8

social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.

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9

gender typing

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.

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10

androgyny

displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics

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11

transgender

an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth-designated sex.

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12

adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.

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13

puberty

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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14

identity

our sense of self.

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15

social identity

the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group memberships.

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16

intimacy

in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in young adulthood.

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17

emerging adulthood

a period from about age 18 to the mid-twenties, when many in Western cultures are no longer adolescents but have not yet achieved full independence as adults.

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18

X chromosome

the sex chromosome found in both males and females.

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19

Y chromosome

the sex chromosome typically found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.

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20

testosterone

the most important male sex hormone. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs during the fetal period, and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.

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21

primary sex characteristics

the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.

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22

secondary sex characteristics

nonreproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.

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23

spermarche

the first ejaculation.

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24

menarche

the first menstrual period

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25

intersex

a condition present at birth due to unusual combinations of male and female chromosomes, hormones, and anatomy; possessing biological sexual characteristics of both sexes.

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26

AIDS

a life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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27

sexual orientation

our enduring sexual attraction, usually toward members of our own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation); variations include attraction toward both sexes (bisexual orientation).

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28

menopause

the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.

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29

cross-sectional study

research that compares people of different ages at the same point in time.

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30

longitudinal study

research that follows and retests the same people over time.

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31

neurocognitive disorders (NCDs)

acquired (not lifelong) disorders marked by cognitive deficits; often related to Alzheimer’s disease, brain injury or disease, or substance abuse. In older adults, neurocognitive disorders were formerly called dementia.

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32

Alzheimer’s disease

a neurocognitive disorder marked by neural plaques, often with onset after age 80, and entailing a progressive decline in memory and other cognitive abilities.

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33

social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

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