HOSA 139 Terms (Nutrition)

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Macronutrients

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Nutrition

8th

A study set for Foundations of Nutrition. From Quizlet by sehamric.

139 Terms

1

Macronutrients

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins & water

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2

Main function & caloric intake of Carbohydrates

energy, 4 Kilocalories, 50-60% of daily caloric intake

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3

Main function & caloric intake of Lipids

storage of energy; 9Kcal; less than 30 % of daily caloric intake

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4

Main function & caloric intake of Protein

structure; 4Kcal; or 15-25% of daily caloric intake

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5

3 main catagories of carbohydrates

monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides

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6

Monosaccharide

simplest: glucose, fructose, galactose

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7

Disaccharide

sucrose, maltose, lactose & lactulose

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8

Polysaccharide

starch, glycogen, soluble & insoluble

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9

Fiber is subdivided into

soluble & insoluble

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10

RDA for fibers is

25-35 per day

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11

Soluble fiber

helps to reduce blood cholesterol levels

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12

Insoluble fiber

is important for colon health

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13

4 disorders of carbohydrate metabolism

galactosemia, primary lactase deficiency, lactose intolerance, sucrase deficiency

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14

Galatosemia

inherited, early onset, accumulation of galatose in blood, severe symptoms = failure to thrive

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15

Primary lactase deficiency

body cannot digest lactose, GI symptoms, early onset

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16

Lactose intolerance

later onset, varied severity, various causes: inheritance, increased antibiotic use

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17

Sucrase deficiency

similar to lactase deficiency:body cannot digest sucrase, GI symptoms, early onset

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18

Functions of Carbohydrates

primary energy source for energy; balance protein & fat metabolism; fiber: important for bowel fx, waste elimination & blood sugar control; liver detox

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19

Amino acids

the basic building blocks for proteins

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20

Proteins are subdivided into

essential & nonessential

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21

Urea/Ammonia

the main waste product produced by protein metabolism

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22

Dietary sources of protein

complete: animal based; incomplete: plant based

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23

Complete & incomplete protein forms

are based upon the range of amino acids present

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24

Disorders of protein

Celiac disease & Milk protein allergy

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25

2 types of protein malnutrition

Marasmus; Kwashiorkor disease

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26

Marasmus

"starvation"; both protein & calorie deficiency

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27

Kwashiorkor Disease

protein deficiency with appropriate caloric intake

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28

Functions of amino acids

tissue repair; immune system support; neurotransmitter support; growth; osmotic balance; pH balance

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29

Fats

should comprise no more than 30% of daily caloric intake

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30

Fatty acids are named based on

number of carbohydrates, degree of saturation & location of the first double bond

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31

Saturated fats

have no double bonds

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32

Saturated fats come from

animal sources

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33

Mono-unsaturated Fats

have one double bond

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34

Poly-unsaturated Fats

have many double bonds

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35

Mono & Poly-unsaturated Fats

come from plant sources

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36

2 groups of essential fatty acids

omega 6 (linoleic acid); omega 3 (linolenic acid)

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37

Results of essential fatty acid deficiency

dermatitis & blood clotting

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38

Trans-fats

the hydrogenation of unsaturated fats

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39

Trans-fats promote

increased cholesterol; fatty liver

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40

Function of fats

energy storage; protect & insulate organs; slow gastric emptying

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41

2 major types of cholesterol

based on the density: HDL (high density lipids) & LDL (low density lipids)

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42

LDL (low density lipids)

bad cholesterol because it transports cholesterol to body cells

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43

HDL (high density lipids)

good cholesterol

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44

Risk of heart disease increases

when good + bad cholesterol are over 5.2mmol/l

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45

Total dietary cholesterol should not exceed

300mg/day

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46

Cholesterol

important in the formation of hormones, vitamin D & bile acids

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47

Vitamin D

is formed in the skin

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48

Factors affecting blood cholesterol

increased trans-fats & saturated fats; decreased fiber & decreased exercise

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49

60% of body weight

is water

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50

An adult requires

2-3 liters of water per day

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51

Fat soluble vitamins include

vitamins: A, D, E and K

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52

Water soluble vitamins

B(s), C, folic acid, pantothemic, biotin

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53

Fat soluble vitamins taken in high dosage

have the potential become toxic because these vitamins are stored

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54

Main anti-oxidant nutrients

vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E and selinium

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55

Function of vitamin C

antibody production, protein metabolism, collagen synthesis/connective tissue, supports liver detox, wound healing, cancer prevention, iron absorption in the GI tract

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56

Scurvy

vitamin C deficiency

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57

Vitamin C toxicity

diarrhea/GI upset, increased uric acid formation, rebound scurvy

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58

Common sources of Vitamin C

fresh fruit especially citrus, kiwi, strawberries, red/orange peppers

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59

RDA of Vitamin C

75mg/day , maximum = 90mg/d

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60

Vitamin E

found in all cell membranes & protects from oxidation

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61

Sources of Vitamin E

nut/seed oils, avacados

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62

Mineral Selenium

acts closely with vitamin E in protecting cell membranes

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63

Beta carotene

the precursor to vitamin A

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64

Vitamin A deficiency

nycotolopia: night blindness

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65

Function of Vitamin A

eyes: retinol: important for vision/light accomodation; epithelial regeneration; immune functions; bone growth/development; anti-cancer functions

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66

Vitamin A is potentially toxic

especially among pregnant women (fetal malformation: 5000IU maximum)

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67

Beta carotene

is not toxic to pregnant women

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68

Sources of Vitamin A

organ meats, butter, eggs

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69

Sources of Beta Carotene

carrots, orange/red vegetables; (water soluble)

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70

Thiamin (B1) deficiency

can result from high alcohol intake

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71

Beri Beri

disease resulting from thiamin deficiency

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72

Symptoms of thiamin deficiency

anorexia; weakness; impaired memory; neuropathy

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73

Sources of thiamin (B1)

legumes, nuts, seeds, grains

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74

Function of thiamin

carbohydrate & energy metabolism of cellular respiration; formation of acetylcholine: neurotransmitter (especially for memory)

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75

Riboflavin (B2) function

a component of the co-enzyme FAD/FADH+H; important for energy metabolism

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76

Niacin (B3)

can be formed from the amino acid tryptophan

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77

Co-enzyme NAD/NADH+H

niacin is a component

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78

Niacin (B3) deficiency

symptoms of dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia (3 D's)

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79

3 stored water soluble vitamins

pantothenic, B12, B6

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80

Function of Pyridoxine (B6)

amino acid/protein metabolism; neurotransmitter synthesis (serotonin; epinephrine; histamine); hemoglobin synthesis; glycogenolysis: release of glucose from liver

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81

Vitamin B12

requires intrinsic factor for absorption

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82

Impaired absorption of B12

deficiency results in pernicious anemia

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83

Pernicious anemia

type of macrocytic anemia

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84

Folic acid deficiency

results in macrocytic anemia

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85

Functions of B12

synthesis of nucleic acids (DNA/RNA); essential for: red blood cell formation, protecting myelin of nerves; metabolism of fat, protein, carbohydrated; manufacturer of choline: important for memory

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86

Sources of vitamin B12

found in animal or fortified products

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87

Sources of folic acid

found in green leafie vegetables & liver

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88

400mcg/d supplimentation of folic acid

in pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects in infants

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89

Pantothenic Acid (B5)

a component of co-enzyme A

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90

Function of Pantothenic Acid (B5)

important for the metabolism of cholesterol, steroids, fatty acids

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91

Function of Biotin

metabolism of fatty acids, proteins, carbohydrates; maintains healthy skin, hair, nails; related to B12 & folic acid metabolism

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92

Function of choline

part of acetylcholin (memory neurotransmitter); Lipotropic factor: fat metabolism in liver & lipoprotein production; component of nerve tissue/brain

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93

Important nutrients for bone health

calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, phosphorous & florides

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94

RDA for calcium

for 19-50 yr olds is 1000mg/day

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95

Functions of Calcium

healthy bones & teeth; vasodilation/vasoconstriction, mm contraction/relaxation; neurotransmitter release; blood clotting

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96

Dairy

a good source of calcium

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97

Ricketts

result from a calcium deficiency and/or vitamin D

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98

Ricketts in adults is called

osteomalacia

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99

Osteoporosis

a condition where calcium is lost from bone faster than it is deposited

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100

Function of phosphorous

component of ADP/ATP; cell membranes; buffering blood pH; cell growth/repair; enzyme regulation (phosphorylation); bones & teeth

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