UW PSYCH 101 FINAL (dr. andelin)

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location of working memory

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372 Terms
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location of working memory

prefrontal cortex

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location of consolidation and spatial memory

hippocampus

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location of implicit procedural memory

cerebellum

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location of implicit memory: fear processing

amygdala

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location of explicit memory

temporal lobe

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retrograde amnesia

loss of memory for events preceding a trauma

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anterograde amnesia

loss of memory for events following a trauma

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semantic memory

memory for knowledge and general facts

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retroactive interference

access to older memories is impaired by newer memories

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proactive interference

access to newer memories is impaired by older memories

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causes of distortion

memory bias, flashbulb memories, misattribution, suggestibility, false memories

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long-term potentiation (LTP)

enhanced activity that results from the strengthening of synaptic connections between neurons

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context-dependent memory

the environment in which learning takes place provides a cue that aids your access to the information

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state-dependent memory

being in the same internal state as when you learned the information provides a cue that helps you access the information

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prospective memory

remembering events/obligations that will happen in the future

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schema

an internal representation of the world; an organization of concepts and actions that can be revised by new information about the world

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network of association

an item's distinct features are linked in a way that helps us identify the item

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three stages of memory

  1. encoding

  2. storage

  3. retrieval

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latent learning

learning without reinforcement

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vicarious conditioning

learn to engage in a behavior or not after seeing others being rewarded or punished for that action

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operant conditioning

learning by reinforcement

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non-associative learning

individual learns about a stimulus

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habituation

a type of non-associative learning that occurs when a person is exposed to a stimulus for a long time, or repeatedly. the individual habituates meaningless events around them - events that are not helpful or relevant.

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sensitization

a type of non-associative learning that occurs when an individual is exposed to a stimulus for a long time or repeatedly and then has an increased behavioral response.

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activation-synthesis model

dreams may have no meaning at all. they represent random activity from the brainstem that is sent to the cortex, where this information is synthesized into a story or explanation for these random inputs and memory consolidation.

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freud's opinion of dreams

dreams provide insight to subconscious thoughts and they constitute a disguised attempt at wish fulfillment. this cannot be proven.

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sociocognitive theory

hypnotized people aren't in an altered state, but they behave in a way that is expected.

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disassociation theory

hypnosis causes an altered state in which awareness is separated

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dual processing

the simultaneous processing of information at both the conscious and unconscious levels

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suprachiasmatic nucleus

pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythms

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brainwaves in the normal waking state

beta waves

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brainwaves just before sleep

alpha waves

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global workspace model

no singular brain region is responsible for "awareness"

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N3 waves

delta waves

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REM waves

beta waves

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N1 waves

theta waves

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N2 waves

theta waves

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three steps to thinking critically

  1. what is the claim that i'm being asked to accept?

  2. what evidence (if any) is provided to support the claim?

  3. given the evidence, what are the most reasonable conclusions about the claim - should it be accepted or rejected?

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wilhelm wundt

opened first psychology lab in 1879 in germany

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structuralism

spearheaded by wilhelm wundt, margaret washburn, edward titchener. used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind. belief that the conscious experience can be broken down into underlying parts

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functionalism

spearheaded by william james and mary calkins; based on darwin's theory of evolution. advantageous variations are more likely to be genetically passed down and obsolete variations tend to die out. focused on adaptive purposes served by behavior & mental processes.

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psychoanalytic theory

freud's belief that thoughts & actions are influenced by unconscious mental forces. "talking theory" like mental therapy. psychological disorders were thought to be caused by conflict between unconscious thoughts vs acceptable behavior

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humanistic psychology

spearheaded by maslow & rogers. investigates how people grow to become happier & more fulfilled. focuses on people's innate, basic goodness.

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cognitive psychology

spearheaded by miller & neisser: argued that learning was not as simple as behaviorists believed. study of how people think, learn, & remember.

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five domains of modern psychology

biological, mental & physical health, cognitive, developmental, social & personality

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dualism

descarte: mental & physical experiences are distinct & separate

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behaviorism

spearheaded by john b. watson & b.f. skinner: describes behavior in response to environmental stimuli

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six learning strategies (IMPACT)

improving (growth mindset) monitoring (plan & check progress) practicing (repeated, short sessions) attending (selective attention, ignore distractions) connecting (use cues) thinking deeply (elaboration)

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institutional review boards (IRBs)

guardians of ethical guidelines, composed of administrators, legal advisors, trained scholars, & members of the community

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four ethical standards

privacy, confidentiality, informed consent, protection from harm

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case studies

method of research advantage: provides a lot of data about a specific case disadvantage: can be very subjective

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observational studies

method of research advantage: can be very valuable in early stages of research disadvantage: observer bias, reactivity (people act differently if they know they're being watched)

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self-reports

method of research advantage: easy to administer, cheap, fast disadvantage: self-report bias, people may not recall information accurately

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correlational methods

method of research: using two or more naturally-occurring methods to determine the strength of the relationship between them. advantages: rely on naturally-occurring relationships that may take place in a real-world setting disadvantages: can't demonstrate causal relationships, can't show the direction of the cause/effect relationship (directionality problem). an unidentified variable may be involved (third-variable problem)

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experimental methods

method of research: examine how one variable that is manipulated affects another variable. determines causality. advantages: provides control over independent (manipulated) variable, avoids directionality problem disadvantages: manipulating something other than the independent variable can affect the dependent variable & lead to inaccurate conclusions. often take place in an artificial setting.

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confound

potential third variable

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plasticity

capacity of the brain to develop new neuropathways

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three ways of clearing neurotransmitters from the synapse

reuptake, enzyme degradation, diffusion

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reuptake

reabsorbing neurotransmitters into the presynaptic neuron

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enzyme degradation

the breaking down of neurotransmitters

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diffusion

neurotransmitters float away

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spatial resolution

determines where in the brain an action is occurring (i.e. PET scan, fMRI)

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temporal resolution

determines when the brain is active; time-sensitive. (i.e. EEG, MEG)

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causal resolution

determines whether something causes a specific brain behavior (i.e. transcranial magnetic stimulation)

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three basic functions of the nervous system

  1. receives sensory input, 2) processes sensory information by paying attention to it, perceiving it, & remembering it, 3) responds to the information by acting on it.

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central nervous system

consists of nerve cells in the brain & spinal cord

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peripheral nervous system

consists of the nerve cells outside of the brain & spinal cord

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dendrites

short, branch-like extensions of the cell body that receive signals from neighboring neurons

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cell body

information from other neurons is collected & combined

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axon

transmits electrical impulses; vary tremendously in length.

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terminal buttons

located at the end of the axon; knoblike structure

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synapse

where communication occurs between neurons

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neurotransmitters

chemicals of communication that travel to the receiving neuron's dendrites

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three phases of neural communication

  1. transmission, 2) reception, 3) integration

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transmission phase

electrical signals travel along the axon and neurotransmitters are released from the terminal buttons in the synapse

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reception phase

dendrites of other neurons receive chemical signals

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integration phase

neurons assess & integrate the incoming signals

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resting state

electrical charge inside the neuron is more negative than the outside

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sodium ions

ions that enter & make the electrical charge inside the neuron more positive; if enough stimulation occurs, action potential is fired

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action potential

message fires down the axon to release neurotransmitters. either fires or doesnt, no difference in strength. quickly repeated messages are more important

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refractory period

returns the neuron back to its resting state using a sodium potassium pump (pumps out sodium & pumps in potassium). during this period, the neuron is less likely to respond to incoming stimulation

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myelin sheath

fatty casing that insulates the axon, making fast neurocommunication possible

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presynaptic neuron

the neuron that sends the signal

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postsynaptic

the neuron that receives the signal

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excitatory signals

signals the excite the neuron. if the total amount of input exceeds a certain threshold, an action potential is fired (depolarization)

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inhibitory signals

signals that inhibit the neuron & decrease the likelihood of firing an action potential (hyperpolarization)

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selective communication

communicate with other specific neurons, forming networks

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acetylcholine

neurotransmitter involved in motor control over muscles, attention, memory, learning, & sleeping

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norepinephrine

neurotransmitter involved in arousal & alertness "wake-up fairy" !!

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seratonin

neurotransmitter involved in emotional states, impulse control, dreaming

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dopamine

neurotransmitter involved in reward & motivation, motor control over voluntary movement

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GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)

neurotransmitter involved in inhibition of action potentials, anxiety reduction, intoxication through alcohol

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endorphins

neurotransmitter involved in pain reduction & reward

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glutamate

neurotransmitter involved in the enhancement of action potentials, learning, & memory

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agonists

drugs that enhance to actions of neurotransmitters (i.e. nicotine, caffeine)

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antagonists

drugs that inhibit the actions of neurotransmitters

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structures of the hindbrain

medulla, pons, cerebellum

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medulla

hindbrain structure involved in breathing, heart rate, and other survival mechanisms

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pons

hindbrain structure involved in sleep, arousal, left-right body movement coordination

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cerebellum

hindbrain structure involved in motor learning, coordination, & balance

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