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1

z-score

tells us how many standard deviations from the mean an observations falls, and in what direction (value - mean / SD)

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2

percentile

the value with p% of observations LESS THAN OR EQUAL to it

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3

Cumulative relative frequency graph

plots a point corresponding to the percentile of a given value in a distribution of quantitative data

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4

Transforming

converts the original observations from the original units of measurements to another scale

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5

Density Curve

the area under this curve and above any interval of values on the horizontal axis estimates the proportion of all observations that fall in that interval

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6

Mean of a Density Curve

the point at which the curve would balance if made of solid material

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7

Median of a Density Curve

the equal-areas point, the point that divides the area under the curve in half

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8

Normal distribution

described by a symmetric, single-peaked, bell-shaped density curve called a NORMAL CURVE

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9

Empirical Rule (68-95-99.7)

in a normal distribution, ~68% of observations fall within 1 SD of the mean, ~95% of observations fall within 2 SD of the mean, and ~99.7% of observations fall within 3 SD of the mean

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10

Sample Normal Distribution

the normal distribution with mean 0 and SD 1 —- use when referring to z-scores

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11

**Standard Normal distribution**

**the normal distribution with mean 0 and SD 1 (use when referring to z-scores)**

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