AP Psych Unit 2 Part 1 Quiz

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Neurons

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44 Terms

1

Neurons

They are nerve cells, the basic building blocks of the nervous system.

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2

Motor Neurons

Control muscles that carry outgoing information from their brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.

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3

Sensory Neurons

Carry messages from the body's tissue and sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord.

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4

Inter neurons

In the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory and motor inputs.

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5

Dendrites

Receive information and conduct it towards the cell body.

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6

Axons

Pass messages along to other neurons or to muscles or glands. (dendrites listen)

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7

The Myelin Sheath

A layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axons of some neurons and helps speed their impulses.

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8

Action Potential

The neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon.

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9

Threshold

It is an action potential that signals a trigger to neurons that then travels down the axon and impact other neurons increasing the stimulation.

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10

Synapse

A gap between the axon terminal of the sending neurons and the dendrites of the receiving neuron.

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11

How do neurons communicate with each other?

When action potential reaches the axon terminals it triggers a release of a chemical messengers from neurotransmitters that cross the synaptic gap to bind receptors sites on the receiving neuron dendrites like fitting a lock.

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12

Acetylcholine

It enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contractions

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13

Dopamine

Influences movement, learning, attention and emotion.

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14

Too much dopamine

Is linked to schizophrenia.

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15

Too little dopamine

Causes the brain to have tremors and decreased mobility

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16

Serotonin

Affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal. Having low levels is linked to depression.

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17

Endorphins

Natural opiate like transmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.

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18

Various Drugs and their affect on neural communication at the synapse.

When flooded with opiates the brain stops producing its own natural opiate. So when the drug isn't taken anymore the brain may be deprived of any form of opiate resulting in withdrawal symptoms. Unless you take the drugs or wait for natural opiates to be produced.

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19

Agonists

Excite; they are similar enough to the neurotransmitters to mimic its effect or it may block the neurotransmitters reputable. Ex: heroin, morphine, opium

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20

Antagonists

Inhibit; it can be a drug that inhibits a neurotransmitter released. Ex: chlorpromazine stop dopamine (block its effect)

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21

Nervous System

The body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells

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22

Central Nervous System

the brain and spinal cord

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23

Peripheral Nervous System

Sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous stem to the rest of the body

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24

Somatic Nervous System

The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.

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25

Autonomic Nervous System

The part of the nervous system that controls glands and the muscles of the internal organ. It's sympathetic division arouses

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26

Sympathetic Nervous System

P1; The division of the automatic nervous system that arouses the body; mobilizer it's energy

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27

Parasympathetic Nervous System

P2; The division of the automatic nervous system that calms the body conserving energy.

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28

Reflex

Simple automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response

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29

Endocrine System

The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.

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30

Hormones

Originate in one tissue, travels through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues, including the brain. Influence our interest in sex, food and agression.

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Pituitary Gland

The endocrine system's most influential gland under the influence of the hypothalamus it promotes growth and controls the endocrine.

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32

Medulla

Part of the brain stem responsible for breathing, heartbeat, and other vital life function

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33

Thalamus

Major sensory relay center- relay sensory messages to the cortex-except for smell

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34

Cerebellum

Supports non verbal learning and procedural memories

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35

Amygdala

involved in aggression, fear, and learning. Major part of the limbic system involved in processing emotions.

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36

Hypothalamus

Portions govern hunger, thirst, sexual drive, body temp, pleasure, oxytocin, and terror

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37

Hippocampus

Important role in the formation of new long term memories

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38

Cerebral Cortex

The outer surface of the two hemispheres that regulates most complex behaviors

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39

Motor Cortex

Key role in voluntary movement- coordination and initiation of motor movement. The area in the frontal love that sends messages to muscles and glands

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40

Parietal Lobe

Area of the parietal lobe where messages from the sense receptors are registered.

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41

Right Frontal Lobe

Control of negative emotions, more easily stressed, more easily upset by unpleasant thigns, more suspicious, more often depressed

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42

Left Frontal Lobe

Control of positive emotions, more cheerful, sociable, enthusiastic, self-confident

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43

Temporal Lobe

the area of the temporal lobe responsible for processing sound information

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44

Occipital Lobe

Especially important regarding visual perception interpretation. Primary visual area of the brain for reception and processing of visual information

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