APUSH 8A

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Cold War

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29 Terms

1

Cold War

A period of political tension and rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union, lasting roughly from 1947 to 1991.

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2

United Nations

An international organization established in 1945 to promote peace, security, and cooperation among nations.

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3

Soviet satellite (buffer) states

Eastern European countries controlled by the Soviet Union after World War II, serving as a buffer zone between the USSR and Western Europe.

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4

Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech

A speech delivered by Winston Churchill in 1946, highlighting the division of Europe into Western and Soviet-controlled areas.

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5

Containment/Truman Doctrine

The policy of containing Soviet expansionism, outlined in the Truman Doctrine, which pledged support to nations resisting communist influence.

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6

Marshall Plan

An American initiative to aid Western Europe's post-World War II recovery by providing economic assistance and promoting stability.

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7

Berlin Airlift

A humanitarian and strategic operation in 1948-1949 to supply West Berlin with necessities after the Soviet Union blocked land access.

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8

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

A military alliance formed in 1949 among Western nations to defend against Soviet aggression.

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9

Warsaw Pact

A military alliance established in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite states in response to NATO.

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10

Arms Race (for atomic weapons)

Intense competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to develop and stockpile nuclear weapons during the Cold War.

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11

Chinese Civil War

A conflict between the Chinese Nationalist Party (led by Chiang Kai-shek) and the Communist Party (led by Mao Zedong) from 1927 to 1949.

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12

Chiang Kai-shek/Nationalists

Leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) and rival to the Communist Party during the Chinese Civil War.

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13

Mao Zedong/Communists

Leader of the Chinese Communist Party and eventual founder of the People's Republic of China after the Chinese Civil War.

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14

Korean War

A conflict from 1950 to 1953 between North Korea (backed by the Soviet Union and China) and South Korea (supported by the United Nations, primarily the United States).

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15

Dwight D. Eisenhower

34th President of the United States (1953-1961) and former Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in Europe during World War II.

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16

John Foster Dulles and "brinkmanship"

Dulles was the U.S. Secretary of State known for his policy of brinkmanship, advocating for aggressive tactics to confront communist threats.

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17

Nikita Khrushchev

Soviet leader who succeeded Stalin, known for his policy of de-Stalinization and involvement in the Cuban Missile Crisis.

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18

Hungarian Revolt, 1956

A nationwide uprising in Hungary against Soviet influence and the Communist government, brutally suppressed by Soviet forces.

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19

Sputnik

The first artificial satellite launched into space by the Soviet Union in 1957, marking the beginning of the space age and the space race.

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20

National Defense and Education Act

A U.S. law enacted in 1958 to enhance scientific and technical education, particularly in response to the Soviet Union's technological advancements.

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21

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)

A U.S. government agency established in 1958 for civilian space exploration and research.

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22

U-2 Incident

The 1960 crisis when a U.S. spy plane was shot down over Soviet territory, leading to increased tensions between the two superpowers.

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23

Fidel Castro/Communist takeover of Cuba

Cuban revolutionary leader who established a communist regime in Cuba after overthrowing Fulgencio Batista in 1959.

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24

Military-industrial complex

A term coined by Eisenhower referring to the alliance between the military establishment and defense contractors, raising concerns about its influence on policy.

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25

John F. Kennedy

35th President of the United States (1961-1963), known for his leadership during the Cuban Missile Crisis and civil rights advocacy.

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26

Bay of Pigs Invasion

Failed U.S.-backed attempt in 1961 to overthrow Castro's regime in Cuba, leading to embarrassment for the Kennedy administration.

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27

Berlin Wall

Barrier built by East Germany in 1961 to prevent East Berliners from defecting to West Berlin, symbolizing the division between East and West during the Cold War.

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28

Cuban Missile Crisis

A 1962 confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba, bringing the world to the brink of nuclear war.

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29

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

Agreement signed in 1963 between the United States, Soviet Union, and United Kingdom, limiting nuclear testing in the atmosphere, space, and underwater.

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