Chemistry Unit 7

studied byStudied by 4 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

A+B → AB

ex: Na +Cl2 → NaCl

1 / 69

Tags and Description

70 Terms

1

A+B → AB

ex: Na +Cl2 → NaCl

Synthesis

New cards
2

AB → A+B

ex: NaCl → Cl2

Decomposition

New cards
3

AB + C → AC + B

ex: NaBr +Cl2 → NaCl + Br2

single replacement → nonmetal replaces nonmetal

New cards
4

AB + C → CB + A

ex: HCl + Mg → MgCl2 + H2

single replacement → metal replaces metal

New cards
5

AB + CD → AD + CB

ex: NaNO3 + KCL → NaCl + KNO3

double replacement

New cards
6

HA + BOH → H2O + BA

ex: HCl + KOH → H2O + Kl

acid + base → water and salt

neutralization

New cards
7

organic + O2 → CO2 + H2O

ex: CH4 + O2 → CO2 +H2O

organic combustion

New cards
8

metal + O2 → metal oxide

ex: Mg + O2 → MgO

metallic combustion

New cards
9

Oxidation Agents

  • Electron acceptor

  • Helps the other element be oxidized

    • This is the compound that contains the reduced form.

New cards
10

Reducing Agents

  • Electron Donor

  • Helps the other element be reduced

    • This is the compound that contains the oxidized form

New cards
11

Oxidation

The element that has an increase in oxidation state (a loss of electrons)

New cards
12

Reduction

The element that has a decrease in oxidation state (a gain of electrons)

New cards
13

Endothermic Reaction → draw graph

  • Energy absorbed(used)

  • system gets cooler

  • Energy needed

    • reactants + heat → product

New cards
14

Exothermic Reaction → draw graph

  • Energy Released

  • System gets warmer

    • Energy originally stored in + heat

New cards
15

Change in Enthalpy Equation

ΔH = Product - Reactant

New cards
16

Predicting Products (steps)

  • Break apart the compound (A2O3 → Al + O)

  • Diatomic elements must add a subscript of 2 (Al + O2)

New cards
17

Collision Theory

  1. The reactants have to collide

  2. the reactants have to collide with each other with enough amount of energy (activation energy)

  3. The reactants should have the right orientation (position) when colliding.

New cards
18

How to determine the limiting and excess reactants

  1. For each reactant calculate the amount of product formed (moles/grams)

  2. the smaller answer indicates the limiting reactants and amount of product formed

    1. The smaller product amount (grams, moles, etc.) is the theoretical yield.

New cards
19

molarity equation

M = mol/L

New cards
20

Formula for dilution

M1V1 = M2V2

New cards
21

Catalysts in chemical reactions

Adding a catalyst can speed up a chemical reaction

  • lowers activation energy = collisions are more efficient.

New cards
22

Speeding up chemical reaction (4 ways)

  1. Concentration/Molarity (more molecules = more collisions)

  2. Temperature (Faster molecule = more collisions)

  3. Surface Area (more molecules exposed = more collisions)

  4. Catalyst

New cards
23

Acids

  • Contain Hydrogen(H+) ions

  • Taste sour

  • corrosive to metals

  • low pH

  • conducts electricity in water

    • turns blue litmus paper red

New cards
24

Base

  • contains hydroxide (OH-) ions

  • Taste bitter/chalky

  • Slippery feel

  • high pH

  • conduct electricity in water

    • Turns red litmus paper blue

New cards
25

Hydronium

  • water + proton (H+) → Ho3O+

  • H3O+ is interchangeable with H+

New cards
26

Self Ionization of Water

  • water is polar

  • There are equal amount of hydrogen & oxygen

    • The reaction can be written as H2O + H2O <-→ H3O(aq) + OH-(aq)

New cards
27

Arrhenius Acid

  • Produce hydrogen ions when they break apart in water

    • HCl-(aq) → H+(aq) +Cl- (aq)

New cards
28

Arrhenius Base

  • produce (OH-) when they break apart in water

    • NaOH- (aq) → Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

New cards
29

Bronsted-Lowry acids

proton(H+) donors

New cards
30

Bronsted-Lowry bases

proton (H+) acceptors

New cards
31

conjugate bases

the species remaining after an acid has lost a proton

New cards
32

amphoteric

A substance that can act as an acid or a base… like water

New cards
33

Strong acids and bases form strong electrolytes (100% dissociation)

Nitric(HNO3), Sulfuric (H2SO4), hydrochloric (HCl), all group 1 hydroxides, Ba(OH)2

New cards
34

Weak acids and bases form weak electrolytes (partial dissociation)

Carbonic acid (H2CO3), acetic acid (HC2H3O2), ammonia (NH3)

New cards
35

acid pH

0-7

New cards
36

neutral pH

7

New cards
37

base pH

7-14

New cards
38

endpoint

When the indicator changes color & it should be close to the equivalence point

New cards
39

Acid base titration

The slow addition of one solution of a known concentration to a known volume of another solution of unknown concentration until the reaction reaches neutralization.

New cards
40

Acid base neutralization

All acid-base reactions are neutralization reactions, which produce an ionic compound(salt) and water.

New cards
41

“the stoichiometric point of titration”

The point at which moles of H+ ions from the acid=moles of OH- from the base.

New cards
42

percent yield formula

[actual yield (from an experiment)/theoretical yield] x 100

New cards
43

intermolecular force

As the intermolecular force gets stronger, more energy is required to break the forces holding molecules together. In other words, more energy is needed to melt solid or boil liquid.

New cards
44

vapor pressure

vapor collects above the liquid and exerts pressure on the surface of the liquid.

New cards
45

When does liquid boil

when vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure

atmospheric pressure = 1 atm = 760 torr = 101.3 kPa

New cards
46

stronger the intermolecular force..

lower the vapor pressure at a given temperature

New cards
47

different intermolecular forces…

different vapor pressures

New cards
48

colligative properties

A property that depends on the number of solute particles and not upon the identity of the substance

  • vapor-pressure lowering

  • boiling Pt.Elevation

    • Freezing Pt. Depression

New cards
49

Chromatography

Separates chemical species by taking advantage of the differential strength of IMF’s between and among the components of the solution(the mobile phases) and with the surface components of the stationary phase.

New cards
50

The stationary phase

either a solid or a liquid supported by a solid

New cards
51

The mobile phase

the solvent

New cards
52

relative attraction

the relative attraction that each component of the solution has for the mobile phase (solvent) will allow you to separate each of the solutes in a mixture

New cards
53

oxidation reduction (redox)

redox reactions are characterized by a transfer of electrons

New cards
54

oxidation state

a way to keep track of electrons in oxidation-reduction reactions, particularly redox reactions involving covalent substances.

New cards
55

limiting reactants

the reactant is completely

New cards
56

Nonpolar Molecules

  • no lone pairs

  • same outside atoms

New cards
57

polar molecules

  • lone pairs

  • different outside atoms

New cards
58

london dispersion force

  • nonpolar

New cards
59

hydrogen bond

  • polar

  • H is bonded to F, O or N

New cards
60

Dipole Dipole

  • polar

  • H not bonded to F, O or N

New cards
61

lol

New cards
62

saturated

a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solute at a specific temperature and pressure.

New cards
63

unsaturated

a solution that contains less dissolved solute for a given temperature and pressure than a saturated solution (more solute can be dissolved.

New cards
64

supersaturated

a solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature.

New cards
65

conjugate base

formed by the removal of a proton from an acid

New cards
66

weak base

New cards
67

more H+ ions

lower pH

New cards
68

water dissolves what (polar,nonpolar, etc.)

water dissolves ions and polar molecules

New cards
69

mole ratio

New cards
70

higher concentration the concentration

higher boiling point

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 59 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 37 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 68 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard43 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard358 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard47 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard95 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 48 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)