AP World History - Unit 9: Globalization

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What were some efforts to maintain international security after WWII?

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What were some efforts to maintain international security after WWII?

  1. NATO

  2. United Nations

  3. International Criminal Court in The Hague (prosecutes war crimes)

  4. NGOs (Amnesty International, Doctors Without Borders)

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Persian Gulf War

Iraq wanted to gain more control of oil reserves so they invaded Kuwait in 1990 under leadership of Saddam Hussein

  • United Nations sent forces to drive Iraqis out in early 1991 and eventually liberated Kuwait and put severe limitations on Iraq’s military and economic activity

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Saddam Hussein

Iraqi president from 1979 to 2003

  • Repressive and authoritarian leader

  • Invaded Kuwait, but was stopped by UN (mostly US)

  • Ousted by US and Britain in 2003

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Democratic Government in Iraq

Formed in 2005 - conflicts between Sunni, Shiites, and Kurds groups still occurred and terrorism still was an issue

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Taliban

Islamic fundamentalist regime that filled the leadership void in Afghanistan after Soviets withdrew their troops

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Osama bin Laden

the Saudi leader of the international terrorist network Al Qaeda

  • Was able to work under Taliban leadership

  • Despised the US and Westernization

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9/11

Al Qaeda attacked US by hijacking 4 US planes and flying 2 of them into the World Trade Centre in New York, 1 into the Pentagon, and 1 into a field in Pennsylvania - 3000 people died

  • led to US declaring war on terrorism and invading Afghanistan

  • Taliban was removed from power and Osama bin Laden was killed, but Al Qaeda still survives

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What was the last obstacle to true global interaction?

End of the Cold War - resulted in a new and strong wave of global connection

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North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

created to unite global currency/trade further

  • English became the language of global business and communication

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European Union

banded Europe into a single market to give US some competition in 90s

  • Eurozone, a monetary union formed in 1999, included all but 3 nations (UK, Sweden, Denmark)

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2008 Economic Crisis

Stronger economies like Germany were able to remain stable while over-extended economies collapsed badly

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Global Culture Examples

  1. The Olympics

  2. World Cup Soccer

  3. Reggae Music

  4. Bollywood

  5. Social Media

  6. McDonald’s

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Rise of China

become a huge economic and industrial force in recent years

  • worldwide production centres worth 100s of billions of dollars

  • has severely limited internet freedom and remains aged politically

  • nuclear powers with large military force

  • serious problems with poverty and global emissions

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Rise of India

one of the fastest growing economies - poor until the 90s

  • highly educated Indians brought the world of tech in Silicon Valley to India and made it a global hub for technology

  • nuclear powers with large military force

  • serious problems with poverty and global emissions

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General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GAFF)

developed to reduce barriers on international trade - has 153 member states

  • later became World Trade Organization

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Group of Six (G6)

forum for world’s major industrialized democracies - original members US, Britain, West Germany, Italy, Japan, France

  • G7 in 1977 (Canada), G8 in 1997 (Russia)

  • Became G7 again after Russia’s military involvement in Ukraine

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G20

20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors of the world

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Green Revolution of 50s and 60s

production of inexpensive food and use of pesticides led to destructions of traditional landscapes, reduced species diversity, and social conflicts

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Global Warming

worsening at the fastest pace ever due to human activity - outcome is uncertain, but industrialized countries are not doing enough to limit their environmental damage

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World Health Organization (WHO)

Organization to combat global epidemics and poor sanitation issues

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HIV/AIDS Crisis

25% of African adults live with AIDS and treatment is expensive

  • Global health issues highlight the global disparities as the disproportionately affect low-income individuals

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Invention of the Computer

Developed in the 1980s, followed by the Internet

  • Social Media has changed the way information spreads and has brought people closer together

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Internet Surveillance

method of government surveillance and storing of user data, which is considered by many a breech of privacy

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