Adolescence

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There are lots of changes and adjustments (physiological, physical changes since the onset of puberty)

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There are lots of changes and adjustments (physiological, physical changes since the onset of puberty)

How is adolescence a “transitional stage?”

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between 10 and 13, until the end of adulthood

Adolescence age range:

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Adolescence

The psychosocial, emotional, cognitive, and moral transition from childhood to young adulthood

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Puberty

The development and maturation of the reproductive, endocrine, and structural processes that lead to fertility.

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Primary sexual characteristics

Sexual characteristics necessary for reproduction

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organs necessary for reproduction, such as

  1. the penis and

  2. testes in boys and

  3. vagina and

  4. uterus for girls

Primary sexual characteristics: [4]

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Secondary sexual characteristics

Sexual characteristics not directly necessary for reproduction

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  1. Breast development

  2. facial hair

  3. pubic hair

  4. lowering of voice

Examples of secondary sexual characteristics [4]

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Younger the kid, higher the heart rate will be

relationship between age and heart rate:

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Heart rate generally decreases when someone enters adolescence. Expect to find heart rate within normal adult range

Heart rate range for adolescents:

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Sebaceous glands are overactive and can get clogged

why do adolescents get acne?

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Scoliosis

Lateral/abnormal curvature of the spine. Is abnormal finding, but common. During growth spurt may see present

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Depending on degree. Over 20 degrees, HCP will be concerned. less than that, will continue to monitor

When should HCP be concerned when an adolescent has scoliosis?

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Not putting things in their mouths, washing hands (habits are forming). Immune system is more developed

Why do adolescents have fewer acte illnesses than younger kids?

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Kissing, sharing drinks/food,

Why might we see an increase in infections in adolescents?

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Injuries related to sports/risky behaviors

Number one cause of hospitalizations/death in teenagers

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Rapid growth spurts, good to keep track

Why is it important to take height and weight of teens?

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Menstruation and poor diet. Important to get regular blood work done

Why might teens be at increased risk for anemia?

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  1. Sports

  2. not wearing helmets

  3. Not wearing coats in the winter

  4. Driving cars

  5. etc.

Behaviors that put teens at risk for injuries: 4

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Comparing self to what they see on social media. People tend to gain a little more weight in this age, and can see increased fat percentage while mentruating

Why can body image be an issue for teens>

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every six months

how often should teens go to the dentist?

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Grade 6

When is HPV vaccine normally administered?

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HPV can lead to cancer. Important to get vaccine before being sexually active

Why is it important to get HPV vaccine in grade 6?

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Busy. Friends, studyng, extra-curriculars. Going to grab something, not a whole meal. This is why nutrition is a bit of a concern with this age group

Why might teenagers gravitate towards low-nutrient, processed foods?

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Filling up on big sugary drinks and coffee, they aren’t hungry later.

Why can sugary drinks be an issue in this age group and younger?

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Shifting to formal operations. Can start to think about experiences, relate things. More critical thinking happening.

Piaget’s theory for this age group:

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Introspection

Can think about their own thinking/why they think a certain way (critical thinking)

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Egocentrism

Self-centered behavior that comes back from toddlers. Teenagers often have this view, it is important to work with them so they do not continue to think this way

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More challenging questioning because they are transitioning to adulthood, and want to make their own decisions. They do not have full autonomy.

Why might teenagers be constantly challenging the way things are?

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Not wanting to go during school, holding it. Privacy can be an issue. May cause bowel obstruction.

Why can teens be at risk for constipation?

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Melatonin spikes later. Going to bed later and sleeping in, because of melatonin levels. Naps resurge in this age group

Why do teenager’s sleep patterns change? How?

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Identity vs. Role confsion: finding out who they are as a person and their role in society.

Erikson’s stage for adolescents:

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  1. Trust vs. mistrust: building relationships with others

  2. Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt: Wanting to make own decisions

  3. Initiative vs. guilt

  4. Sense of industry

What stages of Erikson’s come back during adolescence: [4]

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They are always questioning, may come off as having an attitude. Can cause more stress in the family.

Why might family dynamics shift in adolescence?

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Peers are more important because they are spending more time with each other. They choose who they hang out with, can change dynamics

How might peers change dynamics in adolescence?

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Has gone down but still exists. 4.4 birts per every 2000.

Modern prevalence of teen pregnancy:

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Suicide

Second leading cause of death in teens

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  1. Hormones

  2. Drug abuse

  3. Relationships

  4. Trauma

  5. Social media

Reasons for high rates of anxiety and depression in teens: [5]

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  1. Withdrawing from friends and family

  2. Changes in behavior

  3. Sleeping more

  4. not going to school

  5. changes in diet

  6. not wanting to do things they normally enjoyed

  7. Giving away personal items

  8. Writing letters about suicidal ideation

Warning signs of suicide [8]

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Bullying, can get more violent (physical fights)

Why might we see an increase in violence in teens?

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  1. extreme fatigue

  2. fever

  3. swollen lymph nodes

Symptoms of mononucleosis (mono

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Mononucleosis

The “kissing disease”. More prevalent in this age group.

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It is a viral infection, has to work its way out of the system. Can be sick for up to 6 months

Why does mono last so long?

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Meningitis

Swelling of meninges in the brain and spinal cord. Can be viral or bacterial (ca get either, bacterial can be worse)

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Lumbar puncture (invasive)

Test for meningitis

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Leukemia

Most common cancer in teens:

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  1. Hiding

  2. Avoiding coming home

  3. not wanting to be around parents

  4. Secretive

  5. Agitation, change in behavior

  6. Appetite changes

Signs of substance abuse in teens: (6)

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They want to fit in, wear certain brands, etc.

Why might it be harder for teens with lower income to meet expectations?

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First generation families

First people to live in a different area. Can be difficult for families if they feel they are losing their culture

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Will still need parental consent for most things, but sometimes need to talk to them privately. Family members may be asked to leave the room they they can be honest.

Why can decision-making be blurry in adolescence?

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16-17, depending on province

How old can teens be to live on their own?

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  1. Any forms of abuse

  2. Sexually transmitted diseases

What are some things that have to be reported to community health? [2]

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HEADASS

Acronym for questions to ask adolescents. It captures everything:

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  1. home

  2. edcation

  3. activities

  4. drugs

  5. sexuality

  6. suicide

  7. Safety

HEADASS stands for:

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