Biology DNA and Protein Synthesis

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Miescher

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Biology

9th

71 Terms

1

Miescher

Discovered nucleic acid in white blood cells of pus (nuclein)

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2

Griffith

Discovered that genes from one cell can be taken in by another cell

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3

Avery & others

Discovered that DNA stores and transmits genetic information (DNA is necessary for transformation)

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4

Hershey and Chase

Concluded that DNA makes up genes using bacteriophages

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5

Chargaff's rules

% of C=G and T=A

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6

Rosalind Franklin (and Wilkins)

Used x-ray diffraction to learn about the coiled structure of DNA

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7

Watson and Crick

Built a 3D model of DNA as a double helix structure

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8

A stands for...

Adenine

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9

C stands for...

Cytosine

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10

G stands for...

Guanine

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11

T stands for...

Thymine

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12

Purines

Adenine and Guanine; Double ring bases

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13

Pyrimidines

Cytosine and Thymine; Single ring bases

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14

antiparallel

Two sides of DNA are_____ based on the location of the carbons on the sugar molecule

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15

OH

3' end has

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16

5' end has

Phosphate

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17

Bases to sugar

Covalent Bond

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18

Sugars to phosphate

Covalent Bond

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19

Nitrogen bases to each other

Hydrogen bond

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20

Helicase

Unzips and unwinds DNA by breaking hydrogen bonds between bases

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21

Topoisomerase

Prevents DNA tangling

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22

Replication Fork

Y shaped region where strands of DNA are replicating

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23

RNA Primase

Marks starting point with primer

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24

Primer

Tells DNA polymerase where to start

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25

DNA Polymerase function 1

Builds DNA by adding 1 nucleotide at a time

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26

DNA Polymerase function 2

Reads 3'->5'

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27

DNA Polymerase function 3

Builds 5'->3'

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28

DNA Polymerase function 4

Proofreads DNA

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29

DNA Polymerase function 5

Removes primer

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30

Ligase

Connects Okazaki fragments together

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31

Okazaki fragment

Small segments of DNA built during construction of the lagging strand

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32

Leading strand

3' side facing the replication fork

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33

Lagging strand

5' side facing the replication fork

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34

Transcription

DNA->RNA; Occurs in the Nucleus

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35

Translation

RNA->Polypeptides; Occurs in the cytoplasm at ribosomes

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36

RNA

Single strand of nucleotides

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37

In RNA, Thymine is replaced by...

Uracil

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38

3 forms of RNA

  1. Messenger RNA 2. Ribosomal RNA 3. Transfer RNA

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39

Messenger RNA

Blueprint for protein synthesis; Travels from nucleus to ribosome

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40

mRNA start codon

AUG

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41

Transfer RNA

Translates mRNA code to amino acids

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42

Ribosomal RNA

Makes up ribosomes along with protein

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43

RNA polymerase binds to the...

Promoter

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44

RNA nucleotides bind with complementary nucleotides until RNA polymerase reaches the

Terminator code

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45

Introns

Noncoding sequences; Edited out

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46

Exons

Code for amino acids; Spliced together

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47

TATA box

DNA sequence that starts transcription (Promoter sequence)

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48

5' Cap

Added to the front of mRNA for protection

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49

Poly-A-tail

Added to the back of mRNA for protection

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50

Codon

3 base code on mRNA - codes for amino acid or is a stop signal

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51

How many different kinds of amino acids?

20

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52

How many stop signals?

3 (UAG, UAA, and UGA)

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53

How many possible codons?

64 (61 code for amino acids)

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54

Anticodon

tRNA codon that is complementary to an mRNA codon (no anticodon for stop codons)

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55

Ribosomes

2 subunits that only bind together during translation; Large subunit and Small subunit

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56

mRNA site

Holds mRNA

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57

A(acceptor) site

Holds tRNA with next amino acid for chain

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58

P(peptidyl) site

Holds tRNA with polypeptide chain

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59

E(exit) side

Holds empty tRNA

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60

Initiation step 1

Start codon binds to small subunit of ribosome

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61

Initiation step 2

The 2 Ribosome subunits join together

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62

Initiation step 3

tRNA with anticodon UAC(Methianine) binds to start codon at P site

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63

Elongation step 1

Next tRNA comes to A site

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64

Elongation step 2

Enzyme joins 2 adjacent amino acids together with a peptide bond

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65

Elongation step 3

1st tRNA detatches and moves to E site to be released

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66

Elongation step 4

2nd tRNA slides over to P site bringing mRNA and amino acid chain along

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67

Elongation step 5

New codon in A site is ready for new tRNA

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68

Elongation step 6

Elongation repeats until the stop codon is reached

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69

Termination step 1

Stop codon in A site and release protein attaches

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70

Termination step 2

Ribosome complex splits apart releasing new polypeptide

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71

Polysome

Series of ribosomes reading the same strand of mRNA

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