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Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by change or practice.
Believed psychology should be the scientific study of observable behaviors and that all learning occurs through interaction with the enviornment
Forming an association between two stimuli resulting in a learned response.
Produce no effect until paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Naturally and automatically trigger an unconditioned response or reflex.
An unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus.
Previously neutral stimulus that, after associated with unconditioned stimulus, triggers a conditioned response.
Learned response to the previously neutral stimulus(conditioned stimulus).
First stage of learning when a response is first established and gradually strengthened.
A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second conditioned stimulus.
Occurrences of a conditioned response decrease and disappear when no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Return of a previously extinguished conditioned response following a rest period.
Tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned.
Ability to differentiate between conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that haven't been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Avoidance of a certain food following a period of illness after consuming that food.
Some associations form more readily because they aid in survival.
Law of Effect
Thorndike's principle that actions that follow desirable consequences are more likely to be repeated than those following undesirable outcomes.
Method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior.
Reinforcers gradually guide an animal's actions toward a desired behavior.
Breaks tasks down into small steps and teaches those steps within the sequence itself.
Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
Adding something good to increase a behavior.
Removing something bad to increase a behavior.
Occurs naturally and doesn't require learning. Evolutionary basis: food, air, sleep, water, and sex.
Secondary (Conditioned) Reinforcers
Stimuli that have become rewarding by being paired with another reinforcing stimulus. Ex: money
Symbols or tokens that can be exchanged for other reinforcers. Ex: arcade tickets
Adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows.
Adding something bad to decrease a behavior.
Removing something good to decrease a behavior.
Being rewarded for doing something diminishes intrinsic motivation.
Schedules of Reinforcement
A pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced.
Desired behavior is reinforced each and every time it occurs.
The response is reinforced only part of the time, less quick to learn, but sticks longer.
Reinforced only after a specific number of responses.
Response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses.
First response is rewarded only after a specific amount of time has gone by.
A response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed.
L:earning through watching others. "Monkey see, monkey do"
Nervous system cells that fire both when an organism itself is doing a behavior and also when observing another doing the behavior.
One can learn something right away but not show it right away.
A sudden realization of the problem's solution. "Light Bulb"
The Premack Principle
A person will perform less desirable tasks in order to perform more desirable ones as a consequence.
A mental state in which an organism continues to experience a painful or unpleasant stimulus because it has learned that it has no ability to change the outcome.
External Locus of Control
The perception that a chance or outside forces beyond our control determine out fate.
Learning mental information by observing events, watchign others, ir through language.
A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake, for internal reward.