Exam One Ch. Two

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Types of tissue:

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1

Types of tissue:

Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, Muscular

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2

Tissues are made of

cells and extracellular matrix

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3

Extracellular matrix is made of

protein fibers, water, minerals, nutrients, waste products.

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4

Epithelial cell types

squamous, cuboidal, columnar

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5

What are squamous cells good for?

Exchange of gases, nutrients, waste products

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6

Where are cuboidal cells found?

Lining the ducts of many glands

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7

Where are columnar cells found?

lining the intestines

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8

What cells can have microvilli?

Columnar

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9

Epithelial Tissue function

protect, secretion, absorbtion

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10

Connective tissue function

connection, support, protection, movement, transport, storage, heat production

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11

Types of connective tissue

Fibrous, cartilage, bone, blood

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12

Types of fibrous connective tissue cells

Fibroblasts, macrophages, leukocytes, mast cells, adipocytes

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13

Types of fibrous connective tissue fibers

collagenous, reticular, elastic

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14

Fibrous connective tissue contains

cells, fibers, ground substance

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15

Types of fibrous connective tissue

Loose and dense

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16

Types of loose fibrous connective tissue

areolar, reticular, adipose

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Types of dense fibrous connective tissue

dense regular, dense irregular

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Connective tissue immune cells:

Leukocytes (WBC)

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large cells that produce the fibers and ground substance of fibrous connective tissue

fibroblasts

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phagocytic cells that look for, engulf, and destroy bacteria and viruses in fibrous connect tissue

macrophages

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Important part of immune system that monitors body for invasion and coordinates immune response in fibrous connective tissue

Leukocytes

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found near blood vessels and produce factors that promote blood flow in inflamed tissues

Mast Cells

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23

Collagenous fibers are made on

collagen

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collagenous fibers found in

tendons and ligaments

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reticular fibers are coated with

glycoproteins

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26

reticular fibers are found in

some organs for structural support

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Elastic tissue is found in

skin and lung tissue

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Ground substance is made of

carbohydrates, proteoglycans, glycoproteins

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many randomly oriented fibers (COLLAGEN AND ELASTIN). relatively few fibers, lots of ground substance

areolar

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loosely arranged and tissue possesses many lymphocytes

reticular

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Collagen fibers are densely packed and parallel to each other, very strong

Dense regular tissue

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collagen fibers are densely packed but run in random directions. Allows tissue to absorb pressure and resist mechanical stress. Commonly found beneath skin and surrounding internal organs. Very little ground substance, very few visible cells, tightly packed collagen fibers are randomly arranged.

Dense irregular

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33

Chondroblasts are found in

cartilage

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cells of cartilage that secrete the matrix

chondroblasts

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Cartilage Types

Hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage

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Hyaline cartilage is surrounded by

perichondrium

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Hyaline cartilage is a precursor to

osseous tissue

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All bones are covered by fibrous tissue called

Periosteum

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Types of osseous tissue

spongy (cancellous), and compact

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Bone cells are called

Osteocytes

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Osteocytes live in

lacunae

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Haversian canal is in ( ) and holds ( )

osseous tissue, blood vessels and nerves

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Fluid connective tissue:

Blood

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Blood connective tissue functions

transport materials, protective immune function

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Leukocytes are in

blood

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The non-cellular ground substance in blood is called

plasma

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Formed elements of blood:

Erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets

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Cells of blood responsible for transport of O2 and CO2

Erythrocytes (red blood cells) (no nucleus)

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Nervous tissue is responsible for

carrying electrical signals (action potential)

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50

Cells of nervous tissue

Neurons and glial cells (neuroglia)

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Neuron Anatomy

Soma (body), Dendrites (receivers), Axon (senders)

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Types of muscle tissue

Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth

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53

Muscle cells are designed to

contract when stimulated

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Actin and Myosin parallel protein fibers cause striations on this muscle tissue, multi-nucleated:

skeletal

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Cardiac muscle cells are called

myocytes

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Myocytes (cardiac) are

striated, one-nuclear, have intercalated disks

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Smooth muscle

do not have striations, one centered nucleus.

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Types of cell junctions

Tight, junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions

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Gland types by secretion

serous, mucous, mixed, cytogenic

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Modes of secretion

Merocrine - release via duct

Holocrine - release via cell disintegrating

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61

Fibrocartilage can be found in

intervertebral discs

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62

Which muscle tissue contains fibers with multiple nuclei?

Skeletal

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63

Which of the following tissues is specialized for energy storage and thermal insulation?

Adipose

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64

The reticular layer of the dermis consists of what kind of tissue?

Dense irregular connective tissue

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65

Which tissue consists of short, branched cells with intercalated discs?

Cardiac muscle

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66

The rubbery matrix of cartilage is secreted by

chondroblasts

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67

_________ produce the fibers and ground substance that form the matrix of fibrous connective tissue.

Fibroblasts

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68

Which tissues are excitable?

muscular and nervous

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69

produce a protective mucous coating over the mucous membranes

Goblet cells

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