Ap bio

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Unity

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62 Terms

1

Unity

All living things made of same 4 basic types of molecules

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2

Monomers

Individual subunits of larger molecules known as building blocks

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3

Functional groups

Small groups of atoms that confer specific chemical traits

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4

Hydroxyl group (-OH)

Makes things polar and water soluble

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5

Carbonyl group (-COOH)

Makes things acids and water soluble

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6

Phosphate groups (-OPO3-)

Energizes and makes water soluble

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7

Amino groups (-NH2)

Makes things bases

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8

Methyl groups (-CH3)

Makes things nonpolar and insoluble

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9

Sulfhydral group (-SH)

Stabilized proteins

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10

Condensation dehydration

Remove water in order to stick two molecules together

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11

Hydrolysis

Using water to break 2 molecules apart, put water back in

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12

Macromolecules

Any large biological molecule made by fusing together monomers

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13

Polymer

all of the monomers are of the same type and becomes a giant molecule

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14

Glycerol

Monomer

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15

Fatty acid

Macromolecule

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16

Peptide

Both macromolecules and polymers

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17

Organic chemistry

Must have both carbon and hydrogen

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18

Hydrocarbons

Have only C and H

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19

Carbohydrates

Have only C, H and O

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20

Carbon

Can bond to 4 other atoms; can form double bonds, rings and chains

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21

Aqueous systems

Living systems

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22

Bind strength order in living system

Covalent bond>ionic bond>hydrogen bond

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23

Saccharides

sugar, all are carbohydrate, most dissolve easily in in H2O

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24

Monosaccharides

single monomer of sugar, smallest unit of saccharide

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25

Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose

example of Monosaccharides

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26

Disaccharides

two monosaccharides bonded together

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27

Sucrose and Lactose

example of Disaccharides

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28

Oligosaccharide

a few monosaccharides, serve as membrane receptors or identification markers

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29

Polysaccharides

many, different properties based on bonding patterns and chain shape

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30

starch, cellulose, and glycogen

examples of Polysacchraides

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31

starch

plant glucose

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32

cellulose

plant cell walls

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33

glycogen

animal glucose

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34

soluble

hydroxyl groups facing out are

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35

insoluble

hydroxyl group facing in are

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36

chitin

modified polysaccharide, not a carbohydrate

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37

Lipids

macromolecules but not polymers, grouped together due to hydrophobic nature

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38

hydrophobic

non polar and is insoluble, fear of water

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39

Triglycerides

fats and oils; compact, longer than term E storage; takes less room than glycogne/starch

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40

Fats

usually solid at room temperature in animals

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41

Oils

usually liquid at room temperature in plants

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42

Triglyceride structure

one glycerol molecule bound to 3 fatty acid molecule

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43

Glycerol

an alcohol that binds up to 3 monomers

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44

Fatty acids

are hydrocarbon chains with a carboxyl group on one end

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45

Unsaturated Fatty acid

don’t pack well, less dense and liquid; there is room for more hydrogen

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46

Saturated Fatty acid

packed tightly so dense and solid, full of hydrogen

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47

Trans Fatty acid

man-made, made by adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids, upsets cholesterol levels

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48

Essential Fatty acids

our bodies can’t make these so we must eat them in our food

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49

Steroids

Hydrophobic, made of 4 fused carbon rings with different functional groups attached

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50

Cholesteral

animal cell membranes and precursor for steroid hormones, vitamin D and bile salts

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51

Steroids

Testosteron, Vitamin D, Cortisone, and Cholesterol

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52

Phospholipids

Amphipathic, Glycerol bond, makes cell membrane

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53

Waxes

a long chain of fatty acids tightly packed to long chain alcohols or carbon rings; repels water

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54

Proteins

polypeptide; polymers made of amino acid monomers; make enzymes, hormones, and muscle; R group

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55

Peptide bonds

bonds between amino acids

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56

Nucleotides

largest monomer made of 3 different groups/monomers; a sugar, a phosphate group, a nitrogen base

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57

Nucleic acids

polymers of many nucleotides; DNA and RNA

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58

DNA

made of nucleotides with the sugar deoxyribose

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59

RNA

made of nucleotides with the sugar ribose

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60

Condensation dehydration

removes water to stick molecules together

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61

Hydrolysis

using water to break 2 molecules apart; puts water back in

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62

Hydrocarbon

the backbone of every functional group

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