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1

developed countries

countries with relatively high levels of industrialization and income

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2

developing countries

a country with relatively low levels of industrialization and incomes of less than $3 per person per day.

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3

Malthus Theory

Starvation is the inevitable result of population growth because the population increases at an exponential rate while the food supply can only increase linearly. (found to be wrong because of human innovation)

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4

r is the...

population growth rate

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5

r formula

(births+immigration)-(deaths+emigration)/total population * 100

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6

TFR

total fertility rate

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7

Total Fertility Rate

The average number of children that each woman in a population will bear throughout their childbearing years, between puberty and menopause.

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8

Replacement-level fertility

the rate at which children must be born to replace those dying in the population

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9

Demography

The scientific study of population characteristics.

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10

Three sources of change in population size

fertility, mortality, and migration

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11

GDP

Gross Domestic Product- the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually in an economy. (correlates with pollution levels) C+I+G+(X-IM)

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12

life expectancy

the average number of years that an infant born in a particular year in a particular country is expected to live, given the current age and lifespan and death rate in that country.

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13

population density calculation

population/area

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14

Birth or death rate calculation

#of births or deaths per year/ total population

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15

Crude Birth/ Death Rate Formula

#births or deaths/10

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16

Rule of 70

Doubling time (in years) = 70/(percentage growth rate).

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17

infant mortality

rate as defined as the number of deaths of children under 1 year of age.

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18

child mortality

rate as defined as the number of deaths of children under 5 years of age.

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19

Population Pyramid

A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.

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20

population momentum

continued population growth that does not slow in response to growth reduction measures

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21

theory of demographic transition

the theory that as a country moves from a subsistence economy to industrialization and increased affluence it undergoes a predictable shift in population growth

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22

stage 1 of demographic transition

Low growth; Very high birth and death rates

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23

stage 2 of demographic transition

High growth; Rapidly declining death rates and very high birth rates

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24

stage 3 of demographic transition

Stabilizing; Birth rates rapidly decline; death rates continue to decline

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25

stage 4 of demographic transition

Low growth; Very low birth and death rates = zero population growth

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26

family planning

the practice of regulating the number or spacing of offspring through the use of birth control

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27

IPAT equation

Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology

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28

urban area

an area that contains more than 386 people per square kilometer (1,000 people per square mile)

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29

ecological footprint

the impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources.

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