unit 8 ap psych flashcards

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Psychological disorder

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67 Terms

1

Psychological disorder

A syndrome characterized by a clinically significant disturbance in cognition, emotion, regulation, or behavior.

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2

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

A disorder marked by extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, typically appearing by age 7.

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3

Medical model

The concept that psychological disorders have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and often cured.

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4

DSM-V

The American Psychiatric Association's system for classifying psychological disorders.

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5

Anxiety disorders

Disorders characterized by distressing anxiety or maladaptive behaviors reducing anxiety.

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6

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

An anxiety disorder involving continual tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.

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7

Panic disorder

An anxiety disorder with unpredictable episodes of intense dread and physical symptoms like chest pain or choking.

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8

Phobia

An anxiety disorder marked by irrational fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations.

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9

Social anxiety disorder

Intense fear of social situations leading to avoidance (formerly social phobia).

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10

Agoraphobia

Fear or avoidance of situations where loss of control and panic may occur.

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11

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

A disorder with unwanted repetitive thoughts or actions.

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12

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

A disorder with haunting memories, nightmares, and anxiety following a traumatic experience.

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13

Posttraumatic growth

Positive psychological changes after struggling with challenging circumstances.

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14

Mood disorders

Disorders characterized by emotional extremes.

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15

Major depressive disorder (MDD)

A mood disorder with depressive symptoms lasting at least two weeks.

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16

Mania

A mood disorder marked by hyperactivity and optimism.

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17

Bipolar disorder

A mood disorder alternating between depression and mania.

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18

Rumination

Compulsive overthinking about problems and their causes.

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19

Schizophrenia

A disorder with delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech.

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20

Psychosis

A disorder where a person loses touch with reality.

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Delusions

False beliefs often accompanying psychotic disorders.

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22

Hallucinations

False sensory experiences without external stimuli.

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23

Somatic symptom disorder

A disorder with physical symptoms lacking a physical cause.

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24

Conversion disorder

Experience of genuine physical symptoms without physiological basis.

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25

Illness anxiety disorder

Interpreting normal sensations as symptoms of a disease.

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26

Dissociative disorders

Disorders where awareness becomes separated from memories, thoughts, and feelings.

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27

Dissociative identity disorder (DID)

A disorder with two or more distinct personalities.

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28

Anorexia nervosa

Eating disorder with significant underweight despite a starvation diet.

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29

Bulimia nervosa

Eating disorder with binge eating followed by purging.

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30

Binge-eating disorder

Binge eating without purging.

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31

Personality disorder

Disorders with enduring behavior patterns impairing social functioning.

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32

Antisocial personality disorder

Lack of conscience for wrongdoing, aggression, or manipulation.

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33

Psychotherapy

Treatment involving psychological techniques for overcoming difficulties or achieving growth.

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34

Biomedical therapy

Treatment with medications or procedures acting on physiology.

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35

Eclectic approach

Therapy using techniques from various forms depending on the client's issues.

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36

Psychoanalysis

Freud's therapeutic technique exploring repressed feelings for self-insight.

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37

Resistance

Blocking of anxiety-laden material in psychoanalysis.

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38

Interpretation

Analyst's noting of dream meanings and behaviors for insight in psychoanalysis.

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39

Transference

Patient's transfer of emotions to the analyst in psychoanalysis.

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40

Psychodynamic therapy

Therapy focusing on unconscious forces and childhood experiences for self-insight.

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41

Insight therapies

Therapies aiming to improve psychological functioning by increasing awareness of motives and defenses.

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42

Client-centered therapy

Therapy using active listening in a genuine, accepting environment for client growth.

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43

Behavior therapy

Therapy applying learning principles to eliminate unwanted behaviors.

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44

Counterconditioning

Behavior therapy using classical conditioning to evoke new responses to unwanted behaviors.

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45

Exposure therapies

Techniques exposing individuals to feared stimuli to treat anxieties.

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Systematic desensitization

Exposure therapy associating relaxation with anxiety triggers to treat phobias.

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47

Virtual reality exposure therapy

An anxiety treatment exposing individuals to fears through electronic simulations.

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48

Aversive conditioning

Associating unpleasant states with unwanted behaviors to countercondition.

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49

Token economy

Operant conditioning procedure rewarding desired behaviors with tokens.

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50

Cognitive therapy

Teaching adaptive thinking to change emotional reactions.

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Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)

Challenging illogical attitudes and assumptions for cognitive change.

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52

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)

Integrative therapy combining cognitive and behavior therapies.

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53

Group therapy

Therapy conducted with groups for therapeutic benefits.

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Family therapy

Treating families as a system to address unwanted behaviors.

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55

Regression toward the mean

tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average

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56

Meta-analysis

a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies

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57

Evidence-based practice

clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences

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58

Therapeutic alliance:

  •  a bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and client, who work together constructively to overcome the client’s problem

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59

Resilience

the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma

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60

Psychopharmacology

  • the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

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61

Antipsychotic drugs

drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder

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62

Antianxiety drugs

  • drugs used to control anxiety and agitation

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63

Antidepressant drugs

  •  drugs used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (several widely used antidepressants drugs are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors - SSRIs)

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64

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient

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65

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (RTMS)

  •  the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity

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66

Psychosurgery

surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior

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67

Lobotomy

  • a psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollable emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotional-controlling centers of the inner brain

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