Appendicular skeleton

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How many bones? what does it include?

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31 Terms

1

How many bones? what does it include?

126, shoulder girdle, upper/lower arm, wrist, hand, pelvic girdle, thigh, leg, ankle, foot

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2

Articulation and location: Clavicle

sternoclavicular joint(with sternum, medial)

acromioclavicular joint(with acrommion in scapula, lateral)

<p>sternoclavicular joint(with sternum, medial)</p><p>acromioclavicular joint(with acrommion in scapula, lateral)</p>
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3

Articulation and location: Scapula(shoulder blade)

Landmarks: acrommion, scapular spine, glenoid cavit

- acromioclavicular joint(clavicle)

- glenohumeral joint(humerus)

<p>Landmarks: acrommion, scapular spine, glenoid cavit</p><p>- acromioclavicular joint(clavicle)</p><p>- glenohumeral joint(humerus)</p>
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4

Shoulder joint characteristics

- glenohumeral joint

very mobile cause glenoid cavity is shallow, more flexibility and less stability

- glenoid labrum, fibrocartilage layer that provides depth to glenoid vavity

- many ligaments, muscles, tendons, and bursa to strengthen

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5

Articulation and location: Humerus

Landmarks: head, capitulum, tochlea

- glenohumeral joint(proximal, glenoid cavity)

- humeroradial joint and humeroulnar joint (distal, radius and ulna

<p>Landmarks: head, capitulum, tochlea</p><p>- glenohumeral joint(proximal, glenoid cavity)</p><p>- humeroradial joint and humeroulnar joint (distal, radius and ulna</p>
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6

Articulation and location: Radius

thumb side of forearm, head and styloid process

- humeroradial joint(humerus, proximal)

- proximal radioulnar joint

- radiocarpal joint(distal, wrist bones)

- distal radioulnar joint

<p>thumb side of forearm, head and styloid process</p><p>- humeroradial joint(humerus, proximal)</p><p>- proximal radioulnar joint</p><p>- radiocarpal joint(distal, wrist bones)</p><p>- distal radioulnar joint</p>
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7

Ulna

pinky side of forearm, olecranon(elbow bone) and styloid process

- humeroulnar joint and proximal radioulnar joint

- distal radioulnar joint and fibrocartilaginous disk(not with carpal bones)

<p>pinky side of forearm, olecranon(elbow bone) and styloid process</p><p>- humeroulnar joint and proximal radioulnar joint</p><p>- distal radioulnar joint and fibrocartilaginous disk(not with carpal bones)</p>
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8

Radioulnar Joint(proximal)

allows for forearm rotation(supination and pronation)

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9

Radioulnar joint(distal)

stabilizes forearm during rotation

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10

Carpals (wrist)

8 small bones bound by ligaments

- radiocarpal joint for wrist and hand movements

<p>8 small bones bound by ligaments</p><p>- radiocarpal joint for wrist and hand movements</p>
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11

Metacarpals

- heads of metacarpals(knuckls) articulate with phalanges

- thum is most movable joint(opposition)

<p>- heads of metacarpals(knuckls) articulate with phalanges</p><p>- thum is most movable joint(opposition)</p>
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12

Phalanges

-manipulation of objects

- 3 per finger, thumb has 2

- interphalangeal joints

<p>-manipulation of objects</p><p>- 3 per finger, thumb has 2</p><p>- interphalangeal joints</p>
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13

Pelvic Girdle functions and bones

- sacrum, 2 coxal bones

- stable base, attaches lower limbs to axial skeleton, strongest ligaments

- transmits weight and supports

<p>- sacrum, 2 coxal bones</p><p>- stable base, attaches lower limbs to axial skeleton, strongest ligaments</p><p>- transmits weight and supports</p>
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14

what is the acetabulum?

Hip socket, where femur articulates with pelvis

<p>Hip socket, where femur articulates with pelvis</p>
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15

what makes up the coxal bones?

- 3 bones fused together

- ilium, ishium, and pubis

- includes sacruiliac joint(SI joint)

<p>- 3 bones fused together</p><p>- ilium, ishium, and pubis</p><p>- includes sacruiliac joint(SI joint)</p>
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16

Ilium

largest, uppermost bone

<p>largest, uppermost bone</p>
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17

Ishium

- strongest, lowermost

- includes ishial tuberosity which you sit on

<p>- strongest, lowermost</p><p>- includes ishial tuberosity which you sit on</p>
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18

Pubis + SI joint

anterior most, SI joint joins sacrum

<p>anterior most, SI joint joins sacrum</p>
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19

Differences between male and female pelvic girdles

Female: shallow, more broad with flaring, wider pubic arch

male: larger and heavier, deep, funnelshaped, narrow pubic arch

<p>Female: shallow, more broad with flaring, wider pubic arch</p><p>male: larger and heavier, deep, funnelshaped, narrow pubic arch</p>
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20

Hip Joint characteristics

- the femoral head fits into acetabulum

- femoracetabular joint

- more stable due to. shape of head, has joint capsule and ligaments

- acetabular labrum: fibrocartilage lining of cavity

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21

Articulation and location: Femur

Landmarks: femoral head and neck

- Femoracetabular joint(hip joint, proximal)

- tibiofemoral and patella femoral joint(distal)

<p>Landmarks: femoral head and neck</p><p>- Femoracetabular joint(hip joint, proximal)</p><p>- tibiofemoral and patella femoral joint(distal)</p>
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22

Articulation and location: Patella

- sesamoid bone, acts as pulley for quad

<p>- sesamoid bone, acts as pulley for quad</p>
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23

Tibiofemoral joint characteristics

- largest and one of most complex

- joint capsule, cartilage, ligaments, tendons

- allows for flexion and extension, internal and external rotation, main weight bearer

<p>- largest and one of most complex</p><p>- joint capsule, cartilage, ligaments, tendons</p><p>- allows for flexion and extension, internal and external rotation, main weight bearer</p>
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24

Articulation and location: TIbia

- more medial, larger and stronger

- tibiofemoral joint and proximal tibiofibular joint(similar to ulna nad radius)

- distal tibiofibular joint and tibiotalar joint(with talas bone in foot)

- medial malleolus(bump on ankle)

<p>- more medial, larger and stronger</p><p>- tibiofemoral joint and proximal tibiofibular joint(similar to ulna nad radius)</p><p>- distal tibiofibular joint and tibiotalar joint(with talas bone in foot)</p><p>- medial malleolus(bump on ankle)</p>
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25

Ankle joint name

tibiotalar joint

<p>tibiotalar joint</p>
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26

Articulation and location: Fibula

- smaller, lateral, deep, stabilizes ankle joint

- tibiofular distal and proximal

- fibulotalar joint

- Lateral malleolus(bump on ankle)

<p>- smaller, lateral, deep, stabilizes ankle joint</p><p>- tibiofular distal and proximal</p><p>- fibulotalar joint</p><p>- Lateral malleolus(bump on ankle)</p>
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27

Tarsals (ankle)

- 7 bones bound by ligaments

- 2 main ones

<p>- 7 bones bound by ligaments</p><p>- 2 main ones</p>
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28

talus

articulates with tibia and fibula to form ankle joint

<p>articulates with tibia and fibula to form ankle joint</p>
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29

calcaneus

heel bone, largest and strongest tarsal

<p>heel bone, largest and strongest tarsal</p>
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30

metatarsals

first one is thicker due to more weight, similar to metacarpals

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31

phalanges(toes)

flexion and extension, 2 per toe

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