AP Psych Ch 4

studied byStudied by 28 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

biological psychology

1 / 56

Tags and Description

Psychology

57 Terms

1

biological psychology

the psychological specialty focused on the physical and chemical changes that cause, and occur in response to, behavior and mental processes

New cards
2

nervous system

a complex combination of cells whose primary function is to allow an organism to gain information about what is going on inside and outside the body and to respond appropriately

New cards
3

neurons

fundamental unit of the nervous system; nerve cells

New cards
4

glial cells

cells in the nervous system that hold neurons together and help them communicate with one another

New cards
5

axons

fibers that carry signals from the body of a neuron out to where communication occurs with other neurons

New cards
6

dendrites

neuron fibers that receive signals from the axons of other neurons and carry those signals to the cell body

New cards
7

synapses

the tiny gaps between neurons across which they communicate

New cards
8

action potential

an abrupt wave of electrochemical changes traveling down an axon when a neuron becomes depolarized

New cards
9

myelin

a fatty substance that wraps around some axons and increases the speed of action potentials

New cards
10

refractory period

a short rest period between action potentials

New cards
11

neurotransmitters

chemicals that assist in the transfer of signals from one neuron to another

New cards
12

neural receptors

sites on the surface of a cell that allow only one type of neurotransmitter to fit into them, triggering a chemical response that may lead to an action potential

New cards
13

postsynaptic potential

the change in the membrane potential of a neuron that has received stimulation from another neuron

New cards
14

excitatory postsynaptic potential

a postsynaptic potential that depolarizes the neuronal membrane, making the cell more likely to fire an action potential

New cards
15

inhibitory postsynaptic potential

a postsynaptic potential that hyper polarizes the neuronal membrane, making a cell less likely to fire an action potential

New cards
16

neural networks

neurons that operate together to preform complex functions

New cards
17

central nervous system

the parts of the nervous system encased in bone; specifically the brain and the spinal cord

New cards
18

peripheral nervous system

the parts of the nervous system not housed in bone

New cards
19

autonomic nervous system

a subsystem of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages between the central nervous system and the heart, lungs, and other organs and glands

New cards
20

sympathetic nervous system

the subsystem of the autonomic nervous system that readies the body for vigorous activity

New cards
21

parasympathetic nervous system

the subsystem of the autonomic nervous system that typical influences activity related to the protection, nourishment, and growth in the body

New cards
22

spinal cord

the part of the central nervous system within the spinal column that relays signals from peripheral senses to the brain and conveys messages from the brain to the rest of the body

New cards
23

reflexes

involuntary, unlearned, reactions in the form of swift, automatic, and finely coordinated movements in response to external stimuli

New cards
24

hindbrain

an extension of the spinal cord contained inside the skull where nuclei control blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and other vital functions

New cards
25

medulla oblongata

an area in the hindbrain that controls blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and other vital functions

New cards
26

reticular formation

a network of cells and fibers threaded throughout the hindbrain and midbrain that alters the activity of the rest of the brain

New cards
27

lorcus coeruleus

a small nucleus in the reticular formation that is involved in directing attention

New cards
28

cerebellum

the part of the hindbrain whose main functions include controlling finely coordinated movements and storing memories about movement but which may also be involved in impulse control, emotion, and language

New cards
29

midbrain

a small structure between the hindbrain and forebrain that relays information from the eyes, ears, and skin and that controls certain types of automatic behaviors

New cards
30

substantia nigra

an area of the midbrain involved in the smooth beginning of movement

New cards
31

striatum

a structure within the forebrain that is involved in the smooth beginning of movement

New cards
32

forebrain

the most highly developed part of the brain; it is responsible for the most complex aspects of behavior and mental life

New cards
33

thalamus

a forebrain structure that relays signals from most sense organs to higher levels in the brain and plays an important role in processing and making sense out of this information.

New cards
34

hypothalamus

a structure in the forebrain that connects to and from the autonomic nervous system that regulates hunger, thirst, and sex drive

New cards
35

superchiasmatic nuclei

nuclei in the hypothalamus that generate biological rhythms

New cards
36

amygdala

a structure in the forebrain associated with the formation of new memories

New cards
37

limbic system

a set of brain structures that play important roles in regulating emotion and memory

New cards
38

cerebral hemispheres

the left and right halves of the rounded, outermost part of the brain

New cards
39

cerebral cortex

the outer surface of the brain

New cards
40

sensory cortex (sensory area)

the parts of the cerebral cortex that receive stimulus information from the senses

New cards
41

motor cortex

the part of the cerebral cortex whose neurons control voluntary movements in the specific parts of the body

New cards
42

association cortex

the parts of the cerebral cortex that receive information from more than one sense or that combine sensory and motor information to preform complex cognitive tasks

New cards
43

lateral dominance (lateralization)

the tendency for one cerebral hemisphere to excel at a particular function or skill compared with the other hemisphere

New cards
44

corpus callosum

a massive bundle of fibers that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres and allows them to communicate with each other

New cards
45

neural plasticity

the ability to create new synapses and to change the strength of synapses

New cards
46

neural stem cells

special cells in the nervous system that are capable of dividing to form new tissue, including new neurons

New cards
47

acetycholine

a neurotransmitter used by neurons in the peripheral and central nervous systems in the control of functions ranging from muscle contraction and heart rate to digestion

New cards
48

norepinephrine

a neurotransmitter involved in arousal, as well as in learning and mood regulation

New cards
49

serotonin

a neurotransmitter used by cells in parts of the brain involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, and eating

New cards
50

dopamine

a neurotransmitter used in the parts of the brain involved in regulating movement and experiencing pleasure

New cards
51

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

a neurotransmitter that inhibits the firing of neurons

New cards
52

glutamate

an excitatory neurotransmitter that helps strengthen synaptic connections between neurons.

New cards
53

endorphins

a class of neurotransmitters that bind to opiate receptors and moderate pain

New cards
54

endocrine system

cells that form organs called glands and that communicate with one another by secreting chemicals called hormones

New cards
55

glands

organs that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

New cards
56

hormones

chemicals secreted by a gland into the bloodstream, which carries them throughout the body

New cards
57

fight or flight syndrome

a physical reaction triggered by the sympathetic nervous system that prepares the body to fight or to run from a threatening situation

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 177 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard64 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 106 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)