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1

Convergent sequence

Has a limit such that the terms approach a unique number

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2

Divergent sequence

The terms don’t approach a finite number

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3

Series

Indicated sum of all the terms of a sequence

Finite & infinite

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4

nth Partial Sum (Sₙ)

The sum of the first n terms of a series

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5

Recursive formula for arithmetic sequence

aₙ = aₙ₋₁ + d

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6

Explicit formula for arithmetic sequence

aₙ = a₁ + (n-1)d

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7

Arithmetic sequence with 2nd differences

Quadratic

aₙ = an² + bn + c

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8

nth Partial Sum of an Arithmetic Series

Sₙ = (ⁿ/₂)(a₁ + aₙ)

Sₙ = (ⁿ/₂)[2a₁ + (n-1)d]

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9

Recursive formula for geometric sequence

aₙ = aₙ₋₁・r

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10

Explicit formula for geometric sequence

aₙ = a₁・rⁿ⁻¹

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11

nth Partial Sum of a Geometric Series

Sₙ = a₁[(1-rⁿ)/(1-r)]

Sₙ = (a₁-aₙr)/(1-r)

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12

Sum of an Infinite Geometric Series

S = a₁/(1-r)

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13

Pascal’s Triangle

A triangular arrangement of numbers that gives the coefficients in the expansion of any binomial expression, such as (x + y)ⁿ

Recursive: coefficients in the (n-1)th row can be added together to find coefficients in the nth row

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14

Formula for Binomial Coefficients of (a + b)ⁿ

ₙCᵣ = n!/[(n-r)!r!]

For the aⁿ⁻ᣴbᣴ term

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15

Formula for Binomial Experiments of (p + q)ⁿ

ₙCₓ・pˣ qⁿ⁻ˣ

x = successes

n = # of trials

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16

Binomial Theorem

(a + b)ⁿ = ₙC₀ aⁿb⁰ + ₙC₁ aⁿ⁻¹b¹ + ₙC₂ aⁿ⁻²b² + … + ₙCᵣaⁿ⁻ᣴbᣴ + ₙCₙ a⁰bⁿ

r = 0, 1, 2, … , n

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17

Power Series

Infinite

x & aₙ take on any values for n = 0, 1, 2, …

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18

Exponential Series

Infinite

Represents eˣ

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19

Power Series for cos x

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20

Power Series for sin x

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21

Euler’s Formula

eⁱᶿ = cos θ + i sin θ

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22

Exponential Form of a Complex Number

a + bi = r × eⁱᶿ

r = √(a² + b²)

θ = tan⁻¹(b/a); a > 0

θ = tan⁻¹(b/a) + π; a < 0

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23

Natural Logarithm of a Negative Number

iπ = ln (-1)

ln (-k) = ln [(k)(-1)]

ln (k) + ln (-1)

ln k + iπ

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