The Rise of Rome

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What mountains form a ridge from north to south on the Italian peninsula?

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1

What mountains form a ridge from north to south on the Italian peninsula?

Apennine Mountains

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2

On what plain is Rome located?

Latium

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3

What is the difference between Ancient Rome & Ancient Greece in terms of the impact of geography in their development?

Mountains less rugged than Greece, thus communities not divided into small, isolated communities.

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4

Near what river is Rome located?

Tiber River

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5

Why is this location significant?

provided access to trade routes on the Mediterranean Sea

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6

What is the legend of Rome’s establishment?

Founded by brothers Romulus and Remus in 753 BC

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7

What were early Romans like?

like? Farmers and herders that spoke Latin

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8

What peoples ruled over the Romans until the Romans overthrew them in 509 B.C.?

They overthrew the Etruscan king

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9

How did the Etruscans influence the Romans?

influenced Romans with sports, religion, architecture, alphabet and military.

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10

What form of government did Rome establish after they overthrew their last king?

A republic

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11

Where did Ancient Greeks settle?

Southern Italy

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12

What did they bring to Roman civilization?

Greek culture and philosophy

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13

Define confederation

an organization which consists of a number of parties or groups united in an alliance or league

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14

What did the Romans allow some of their conquered peoples to become?

Citizens

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15

What ethnicity of people especially?

Latin

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16

What did the Romans allow their allies?

Could run local affairs and could become citizens

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17

Why was this smart of the Romans to do?

They made the conquered peoples feel like they had a stake in Rome’s success.

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18

Why were the Romans successful?

Good diplomats, firm & cruel, rebellions were crushed without mercy, shrewd in extending citizenship and allowing states to run their own internal affairs, accomplished and persistent soldiers; all in all, they were effective and efficient

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19

Were the Romans idealists? If not, then what were they when it came to government?

No. Practical.

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20

Why did Romans distrust kingships?

The Etruscans were harmful to them

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21

What were consuls?

2 men chosen every year, ran government, led army into battle

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22

What was the praetor? (know what civil law means)

administered civil law (civil law the system of law concerned with private relations between members of a community rather than criminal, military, or religious affairs)

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23

What many senators were there?

300

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24

What were the senators like?

Advice givers

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25

How long did senators serve?

Life

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26

Know the aspects of the Centuriate Assembly.

Great landowners, became ruling class, only they could become consuls, other officials and senators

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27

Know the aspects of the Tribunes of the Plebians.

Less wealthy landholders, craftspeople, merchants and small farmers, could vote but couldn’t hold office,

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28

Know defining characteristics of Patricians and Plebians.

FOUGHT IN ARMY SO FELT THAY DESERVED POLITICAL/SOCIAL EQUALITY WITH PATRICIANS

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29

How long did the struggle between Patricians and Plebians last in Rome?

Hundreds of years

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30

What would strong families from both social classes go on the form by 287 B.C.?

new senatorial ruling class that came to dominate the political offices

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31

Who found the state of Carthage? What type of empire did they have?

Phoenicians. Trading empire.

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32

What did Phoenicians control in the western Mediterranean region?

Western Mediterranean trade.

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33

What territories did the Phoenicians control?

Africa, Southern Spain, Sardinia, Corscia, and Western Sicily

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34

Why did Rome fear the Carthaginians?

The presence on Sicily

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35

What began the First Punic War?

264 BC

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36

Who won & how?

Rome with its navy.

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37

Who was Hannibal?

General

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38

What did Hannibal do?

Crossed Spain, moved east and crossed Alps with 30- 40,000 men and 6000 horses and elephants

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39

What happened when the Romans attacked Hannibal as he entered the Italian peninsula? Who won?

They lost 40,000 men and Rome refused to give up and raised another army. Hannibal.

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40

What did Hannibal do after he defeated the Romans?

Roamed Italy

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41

Why was Rome gradually able to recover?

Took back smaller cities

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42

Where did Romans send troops & what were they able to do?

Spain and pushed Carthaginians out

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43

What brilliant move by the Romans forced Hannibal to return to Carthage?

Rome invading Carthage

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44

What happened at the Battle of Zama?

Rome crushed Hannibal’s forces

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45

What did prominent Romans was 50 years after the Second Punic War?

They wanted Carthage destroyed

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46

What did the Romans do to Carthage?

They burned the city and took people into slavery

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47

What states came under Roman control by 146 B.C.?

the entire Greek peninsula

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48

Who gave Rome its first province in Asia?

Pergamum

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49

Because of their defeat of Carthage and other territories gained during this period, what were the Romans masters of by 133 B.C.?

the Mediterranean Sea

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