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Ottoman Empire

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Ottoman Empire

Before the scramble for African colonies began, much of North Africa was part of the declining ___.

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Usman dan Fadio

The Muslim scholar ___ called for social and religious reforms which sparked Muslim reform movements across West Africa.

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3

Shaka

The Zulu tribe in southern Africa was led by ___ who conquered much of southern Africa before facing a new opponent - Dutch settlers.

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Boers

  1. The descendants of those settlers, called ___, fought with the Zulus until the end of the 19th century.

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paternalistic

Most early European settlers in Africa were Catholic and Protestant missionaries, who took a ___ view of Africans and saw them as children in need of guidance.

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David Livingstone

The missionary and explorer ___ opposed the slave trade and wrote with sympathy about the different cultures he encountered.

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Henry Stanley

In 1869, the journalist ___ journeyed into Central Africa to find Dr. David Livingstone in Tanzania.

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King Leopold II

Stanley was also hired by ___ Of Belgium to explore the Congo River basin and help establish a colony for economic advantage.

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Berlin Conference

In an effort to keep the peace as European empires scrambled to claim territory in Africa, leaders met in 1884 at the ___.

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10

Congo

Leopold II had sent explorers to exploit its natural resources, but international outrage forced Leopold II to turn the ___ over to the Belgian government

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Boer War

_n the late 1800s, Boers fought the British in the ___ , resulting in the creation of the Union of South Africa which established an apartheid which lasted until 1993.

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12

Cecil Rhodes

One of the most famous British explorers in Africa was ___ who made a fortune in diamond and gold mining and even had a colony named after him - Rhodesia.

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13

resistance

Although Europeans had more sophisticated weapons, Africans offered heavy ___ to colonization by the European powers.

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14

Ethiopia

In East Africa, the Christian nation of ___ managed to resist European colonization and maintain its independence.

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15

Menelik II

In the late 1800s, the ruler ___ modernized and westernized his country in an effort to successfully defeat an invasion by Italy.

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elite

Over time, Africans with a Western education became part of the social ___ which rejected traditional culture.

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17
  1. Describe the African cultural geography prior to European interference.

North Africa: Sahara, fertile land along Mediterranean, part of the Muslim world

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West Africa: Home of the Fulani people of northern Nigeria

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East Africa: Port cities carried profitable trade

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Southern Africa: Home of the Zulus

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21

Why were missionaries the first to follow the explorers in Africa?

Missionaries were the first to follow explorers in Africa as they were "sincere" in their desire to help Africans. They took a paternalistic view of Africans.

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22

How did King Leopold II's actions in the Congo River Basin impact European interaction with Africa?

King Leopold II's hired Stanley to arrange trade treaties, which prompted Britain, France and Germany to join in a scramble for African land.

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23

Why was Ethiopia able to resist colonization?

It already had been divided into fractions. Menelik II had already began to modernize his country, leading to more advanced weapons and Italian failure.

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24

How did the African elite symbolize the effect of European influence on African culture and society?

Africans rejected their own culture, admiring western ways. African leaders were also forging nationalist movements because of this.

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25

Muhammad Ahmad

During the 1800s, the Muslim reformer in the Sudan, ___ was believed to be the Mahdi or savior of the faith, and stressed piety and strict rules of behaviors.

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pashas

Among the multitude of issues plaguing the Ottoman Empire in its decline were corruption, economic problems, and the ambition of provincial rulers called ___.

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Egypt

Along with the Balkans, nationalist movements in northern Africa resulted in the semi-independence of ___ which ushered in an era of reform.

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Dardanelles

The decline of the Ottoman Empire was encouraged by European schemes to chip away at the empire, including Russia's efforts to gain control of the ___ , a strait connecting the Mediterranean and Black Sea.

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sultans

Western imperialism threatened the power of the ___ who rejected reforms and tried to rebuild the autocratic power enjoyed by earlier rulers.

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genocide

While the Ottoman Empire traditionally allowed minority nationalities practice religious customs, Armenians were accused of helping Russia against the Turks, resulting in a ___ that killed between 600,000 and 1.5 million Christian Armenians.

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Muhammad Ali

In the early 1800s, the appointed governor of Egypt, ___ introduced a variety of political and economic reforms that had made Egypt a major Middle Eastern power.

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Ferdinand de Lesseps

However, by the 1850s, Egypt came under the influence of Europeans, including the French entrepreneur ___.

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Suez Canal

The ___ is a waterway that connects the Mediterranean and Red seas, making it possible to travel to India and Asia without sailing around the southern horn of Africa.

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Proctectorate

After the Suez Canal was sold to the British Empire, Egyptian nationalists revolted against foreign influence, but in 1882 Egypt was made a ___ of Britain.

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persia

Another major Middle Eastern power, ______, instituted reforms but still faced imperial ambitions of Russia and Britain.

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concessions

Britain and Russia persuaded the Persians to grant economic ___, or special rights given to foreign powers.

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37

How was Western imperialism a source of stress in Muslim regions of the world?

Western imperialism held back the reform movements made by Muslim regions and faced powerful threats from Western imperialists in order to grant them trading terms and special rights.

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38

How did European nations take advantage of problems in the Muslim world?

They used diplomacy and military threats in order to crate treaties that gave Europeans special power in Muslim lands and trading rights.

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39

What reforms did Muhammad Ali modernize the semi-independent Egypt?

Muhammad Ali introduced different and many political and economic reforms, as well as government matters to modernize the semi-independent Egypt.

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40

Why was the Suez Canal an important waterway for trade and imperial expansion?

Suez Canal connected the Mediterranean and Red Seas together to create a main trade route.

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41

Why did Russia and Britain compete for power in Persia?

They all had different thoughts and desires. Russia wanted to expand into Central Asia while Britain wanted to protect India.

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42

Mughal

The ___ Empire ruled India for over 200 years, but as a result of poor leadership, Britain turned its economic interests into political ones.

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43

East India Company

While the ___ wanted to make money, the company also worked to improve roads, preserve peace, and reduce banditry to facilitate trade.

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44

Caste

British missionaries tried to convert Indians to Christianity, and British officials also tried to end the ___ system, which consisted of a rigid social structure.

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45

Sepoys

In the 1850s, the East India Company implemented several unpopular policies, including the requirement that ___, Indian soldiers in the Company's military, serve anywhere they were called, both inside and outside India.

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Rebellion

In 1857, the British issued new rifles that were loaded by biting the tips off cartridges greased with animal fat, which offended both Muslims and Hindus and set off the Sepoy ___.

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British Raj

The British crushed the revolt and Parliament established the ___, directly controlling India and taxing the Indians to pay for troops that occupied the new colony.

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48

viceroy

The British ___ governed India in the name of the British Queen Victoria, working to develop Western technology and Western cultural influence in India.

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49

deforestation

Unequal trade developed between India and Britain, transforming Indian agriculture resulting in ___ to create new farmlands for cash crops like jute and cotton.

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50

population

The introduction of better farming techniques and medical care caused rapid ___ growth, putting a strain on the food supply that continues today.

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51

Ram Mohun Roy

In the early 1800s, the scholar ___ believed that Indians should adopt some Western ideas but should also reform traditional Indian c ture, a view that gained support in the latter half of the 1800s.

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52

purdah

Roy condemned the inequalities in Indian society, including the rigid caste distinctions and ___, which isolated women into separate quarters, but he is hailed today as the founder of Indian nationalism and the Father of the Indian Renaissance.

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53

Thomas Macaulay

Most British people did not care to learn about Indian history or culture, exemplified by the disdain for Indian literature by the British historian ___.

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54

How did the decline of the Mughal empire contribute to the growth in British influence?

The British were able to conquer India by using their diversity to advantage. They encouraged competition and disunity among rival princes.

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55

How did Britain's control of India begin and develop?

Britain's control of India began in the mid 1800s and conquering India by exploiting its diversity.

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56

What were the causes and effects of the Sepoy Rebellion?

Causes: Angry sepoys rose against British officers because of bias against Hindu customs and beliefs. Effects: leaving legacy of fear, hatred, mistrust, on both sides

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57

What effects did British colonial rule have on Indian agriculture and economy?

Deforestation: British transformed Indian agriculture by encouraging to settle into farming and pushed farmers to grow cash crops.

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58

How are the origins of Indian nationalism linked to the British Raj?

Under the British control, they formed national congress and began pressing for self-rule.

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59

balence of trade

For centuries prior to the 1800s, Chinese government regulations had ensured that China had a favorable ___ with Other countries, which is the difference between how much a country imports and how much it exports.

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60

trade surplus

China maintained a ___ because it sold silk, porcelain, and tea in exchange for gold and silver, allowing China to se I more than it bought.

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trade deficit

But in the late 1700s, the Industrial Revolution created a need for new markets for European goods, which created a ___ for China.

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62

Opium War

British merchants traded Indian opium for Chinese tea, which caused addiction and a host of social problems for China, which was unable to close its ports to opium as a result of the ___, in which Britain insisted on the right to free trade of opium in China.

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63

indemnity

The result of the wars was a number of unequal treaties, which granted the British a large ___ or repayment by China to Britain for losses during the war.

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64

Treaty of Nanjing

Another condition of the ___ was the requirement that China open five of its ports to foreign trade.

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Extraterritoriality

Finally, the British gained the right of ___ which allowed British people in China to live under their own laws and tried in their own courts, t China's.

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66

Taiping Rebellion

As the Qing dynasty declined due to corruption, poverty, and a population explosion, the peasants revolted in 1850 in the ___, which lasted until 1846.

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67

Confucian

The legacy of the Rebellion included not only the deaths of 20-30 million people, but also the question of whether to continue the traditional ___ culture.

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68

Sino-Japanese War

The Chinese government did not support industrial development, which resulted in China's unpreparedness for the ___ 1894, a disaster for China.

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Spheres of Influence

After China's defeat, European powers began carving out ___ in China to claim trading rights.

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70

Open Door Policy

The United States did not take part in the scramble, but instead forced the imperial powers to adopt the ___ which required that China trade openly on an equal basis.

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71

Gwang Xu

These humiliations led the Emperor ___ to implement the Hundred Days of Reform program to modernize China in 1898, but conservatives sharply opposed the reforms.

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72

Boxer Uprising

In 1899, the secret society "Righteous and Harmonious Fists," formed to drive out foreigners, and attacked foreigners in the 1900 ___ which was crushed quickly.

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73

Sun Yixian

The legacy of the Rebellion was the growth of Chinese nationalism under the leadership of ___ who wanted to form a Chinese republic.

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74

Three Principles

He based his reform ideas on the ___ : nationalism, democracy, and livelihood, which inspired the Chinese to form a republic in 1911 with Sun Yixian as President.

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75

How did British trade policy toward China lead to the Opium War?

The Chinese government outlawed opium and called on Britain to stop the opium trade. Britain refused and this lead to the Opium war of 1839.

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76

How did the Treaty of Nanjing limit China's control over its own borders?

The treaty of Nanjing requires China to repay the destroyed opium, open five Chinese trading ports, and allow Britain to control Hong Kong.

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77

How did Japan, Europe, and the United States weaken China in the late 1800s?

Japan's pressure on China initiated the Sino-Japanese war, won by Japan. Western powers carved out the spheres of influence. Along Chinese coast, USA created the open door policy.

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78

Why did the Boxer society want to drive out foreigners from China?

The Boxer society did not appreciate the foreigners "un-Chinese" ways, strange buildings, machines, and telegraph lines.

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79

How did the Boxer uprising help inspire Chinese reforms?

Flames of Chinese nationalism spread because the Boxer Uprising failed. This triggered reformers to strengthen China's government.

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80

Tokugawas

In the early 1600s, Japan was ruled by the ___ shogun family, who imposed centralized feudalism, closed Japan to foreign trade, and forbade Japanese travel overseas.

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81

Matthew Perry

In 1853, ___ commodore sailed to Tokyo and demanded that Japan open its ports to diplomatic and commercial exchange, forcing the Treaty of Kanagawa which opened two ports to ships but not trade.

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82

Tokyo

After foreign influence caused a revolt placing the Emperor Meiji on the throne at age 15, he moved the imperial capital from Kyoto to ___ in the east.

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Meiji Restoration

From 1868 to 1912, the emperor reigned during a turning point in Japan's history that came to be known as the ___.

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84

samurai

As Japanese governmental leaders worked to adapt Western ways to Japanese needs, ___ were sent to the West to learn about Western industrial techniques.

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Diet

In 1889, the Meiji constitution created a legislature, or ___ , made up of one elected house and one house appointed by the emperor.

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86

zaibatsu

To develop industrialization in Japan, the government sold factories to wealthy business families, known as ___.

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homogenous society

Japan's rapid modernization is attributed in part to its ___ which prevented it from having to cope with nationalist or religious divisions.

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First Sino-Japanese War

As Japan industrialized, it needed to obtain greater raw materials, which created conflict with China over the Korean peninsula in the ___.

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Russo-Japanese War

After defeated China, Japan defeated Russia in the ___ as it sought to control Manchuria.

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Korea

In 1910, Japan annexed ___ absorbing the peninsula into the Japanese empire, and over the next 35 years worked to modernize the territory.

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91

March First Movement

Japanese imposed harsh rule on their colony, and repression led to nonviolent protest in 1919, which was violently crushed and caused the Koreans to establish the ___ as a rallying symbol for Korean nationalists.

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92

Describe Japan's governmental and social structure before Western intervention.

Before western intention, Japan's government had stayed static since it had developed in isolation. Economic crisis occurred to Japanese societies.

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93

How did Japan react to the unequal treaties imposed on Japan by the United States?

Japan revolted against the shogun as they felt as if they did not protect them from foreigner treaties.

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94

Identify reforms made by the Meiji Restoration to strengthen Japan against foreign influence.

The Meiji Restoration replaced feudal order with a new political and social system. They adapted to foreign ideas by building modern industrial economy.

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95

Why did Japan take an interest in expanding its empire in East Asia?

Japan needed to obtain raw materials in order to proceed with industrial growth.

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96

Describe Japan's domination of Korea and the Korean response to Japanese control.

Japan forced Korea to open ports for trade, they tried to erase the Korean language and identity. The Korean response was a nationalist movement of protest.

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97

Dutch East Indies

The Dutch East India Company established the ___ what is today Indonesia, in order to profit from crops like coffee, indigo, and spices.

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98

Burma

The British took control of ___, present day Myanmar, to profit from natural resources and trade industrial products in new markets.

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99

French Indonesia

In response to the anti-Christian actions taken in Vietnam, France invaded the country and expanded control to create ___ which consisted Of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

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Siam

The Kingdom of _____, known today as present day Thailand, was able to resist becoming a European colony.

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