6.2 the blood system

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erythrocyte

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54 Terms

1

erythrocyte

red blood cells that transport oxygen in haemoglobin molecules

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leukocyte

white blood cells

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lymphocyte

b-cells, t-cells, for immune response

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phagocyte

“eat up” pathogens and dead cells

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5

platelets

clotting of blood following damage to cells or erythrocytes

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6

plasma

dissolves or carries all other components of blood, nutrients, waste

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7

myogenic

beating of the heart due to ________ muscle contraction

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8

artery

carry high pressure blood away from the heart to tissues that need it

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9

vein

carry low pressure blood back to heart using valves to ensure blood goes in the correct direction

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10

capillary

very small, penetrate every tissue in body, blood moves slowly under low pressure, exchange of substances

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11

pulmonary

pertaining to the lungs

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12

oxygen nutrients antibodies hormones carbon dioxide urea

along with heat, the blood carries o_______, n________, a________, h_________, c_______ ____, u

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13

thick no no high narrow away from heart

arteries have (thick/thinnest/thin) walls, exchanges of o2 co2 and nutrients (yes/no), internal valves (yes/no), (high/low) pressure, (narrow/wide) lumen, and blood flowing

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thinnest yes no low narrow from arteries to veins

capillaries have (thick/thinnest/thin) walls, exchanges of o2 co2 and nutrients (yes/no), internal valves (yes/no), (high/low) pressure, (narrow/wide) lumen, and blood flowing

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15

1 cell thick

the walls of capillaries are

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16

thin no yes low wide back to heart

veins have (thick/thinnest/thin) walls, exchanges of o2 co2 and nutrients (yes/no), internal valves (yes/no), (high/low) pressure, (narrow/wide) lumen, and blood flowing

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17

william harvey

who correctly described the circulation of the blood with the heart acting as the pump?

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18

leaks bulges high pressure maintains

ARTERY structures to functions

thick outer layer: prevents _______ and _______

thick wall: withstands _____ _________

narrow lumen: ________ high pressure

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19

pulses push blood heart low slow blood

VEINS structure to functions

thin layer: blood does not flow in ______

thin walls: nearby muscles can help ______ _______ towards ______

thin outer layer: ___ pressure

wide lumen: accommodates ______ flowing ______

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20

diffusion small plasma tissue phagocytes small

CAPILLARIES structure to functions

wall is one cell layer thick: distance for ________ is ______

pores: allow _______ to leak out and form _____ fluid, ________ also pass through

very narrow lumen: many can fit in a ______ space

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low high heart right oxygenated high

double circulation: deoxygenated blood (___ O2, ___ CO2) returns to the ______ via the ______ atrium, and it’s pumped from the right ventricle to the lungs, where CO2 is offloaded and oxygen is gotten. now it’s __________ blood (___ O2, ___ CO2) and the oxygenated blood enters the left atrium and is pumped from the left ventricle to the body, where the oxygen is used for respiration and CO2 is collected as a waste product

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24

okay!

go label the parts of the heart under the helpful websites for 6.2 tab!

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25

myogenic muscle contraction

the heart beat is initiated by

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26

sinoatrial node

another name for the “pacemaker” of the heart is the

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27

epinephrine

adrenaline is also known as ______ and it prepares the heart for _________ _______, sometimes referred to as a _____ or _______ response

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double circuit 2 1

blood is considered a ________ _______ because it passes through the heart _ times on _ circuit of the body

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29

low high right ventricle high low left ventricle respiration CO2

deoxygenated blood (___ O2, ___ CO2) returns to the heart via the right atrium. it’s pumped from the _____ _______ to the lungs, CO2 is offloaded, O2 is gotten. now it’s oxygenated blood (___ O2, ___ CO2). now the oxygenated blood enters the left atrium and is pumped from the _____ _________ to the rest of the body, where the oxygen is used for ________ and the ___ is collected as a waste product

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30

lungs

right ventricle goes to

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31

myogenic muscle contration sinoatrial node atria nerves ventricles medulla epinephrine

the control of the heartbeat! ________ _______ _________ initiates the heartbeat, which is not a conscious process. the ________ ____ controls the rate of the heart beat. a wave of extractions is sent, the _____ contracts, conducted to atrioventricular node and passed through the _______ to the ________, which contract. in the _______, chemoreceptors can detect more CO2 in the blood, which releases __________ which prepares for physical activity

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32

okay!!

go look at the graph of the heartbeat and questions in the slides or your packet!!

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33

atrial systole, isovolumetric contraction, rapid ejection, reduced ejection, isovolumetric relaxation, rapid ventricular filling, reduced ventricular filling

in order, the cardiac cycle (7 stages) go

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34

atrial systole, isovolumetric contraction, rapid ejection, reduced ejection

which parts of the cardiac cycle are part of systole?

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35

isovolumetric relaxation, rapid ventricular filling, reduced ventricular filling

which parts of the cardiac cycle are part of diastole?

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coronary arteries myocardial infarction

a blockage in the ________ _________ leads to a _______ __________, which is where a section of cardiac muscle doesn’t get enough energy/nutrients and dies

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superior and inferior vena cava pulmonary veins

atrial systole: right atrium collects blood from _____, left atrium collects blood from _________ ______

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38

QRS complex t wave AV SL

isovolumetric contraction: Av valves close. electrically: the interval between ___ _______ and end of _ _____. mechanically: inverval between closing of __ valves and opening of __ valves

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SL open

rapid ejection: __ valves ______

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SL close

reduced ejection: __ valves _____

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AV close

isovolumetric relaxation: __ valves _____

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AV atria ventricles

rapid ventricular filling: __ valves have opened, blood that accumulated in the _____ flows rapidly to __________

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last

reduced ventricular filling is the ____ stage of the cardiac cycle

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44

relaxed relaxed contracted relaxed relaxed contracted

the cardiac cycle, diastole, atrial systole, ventricular systole

in diastole: the atria is _________ and the ventricles are _________

in atrial systole: the atria is _________ and the ventricles are _________

in ventricular systole: the atria is _________ and the ventricles are _________

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45

heart veins into ventricles into arteries

the cardiac cycle, diastole, atrial systole, ventricular systole

diastole: blood flows into ______ from _____

atrial systole: blood pushed ____ ________

ventricular systole: blood pushed _____ _________

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46

open open closed

the cardiac cycle, diastole, atrial systole, ventricular systole

diastole: AV valve ____

atrial systole: ____

ventricular systole: _____

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47

closed closed open

the cardiac cycle, diastole, atrial systole, ventricular systole

diastole: SL valve ____

atrial systole: _____

ventricular systole: _____

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48

high blood pressure force artery plaque

cause and consequences of occlusion in coronary arteries (heart attacks)

genetic: predisposed for high cholestorol levels/high blood pressure. _ _ _: added _____ against ______ walls, extra pressure damages, more vulnerable to to _______ buildup, atherosclerosis

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49

elasticity arteries

cause and consequences of occlusion in coronary arteries (heart attacks)

age: less ________ in ________

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50

visceral inflammation

cause and consequences of occlusion in coronary arteries (heart attacks)

sex: males at greater risk, abdominal fat is ________ fat that encases internal organs causes _________ by releasing proteins and hormones

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51

blood vessels oxygenation clotting

cause and consequences of occlusion in coronary arteries (heart attacks)

smoking: constricts _____ _______, increases blood pressure and heart rate, decreases __________ of heart, more platelets lead to _______

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plaque arteries

cause and consequences of occlusion in coronary arteries (heart attacks)

diet: more fat/cholesterol in blood leads to _______ formation in ________

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53

weakened circulation

cause and consequences of occlusion in coronary arteries (heart attacks)

exercise:

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54

cortisol hormones atherosclerosis

cause and consequences of occlusion in coronary arteries (heart attacks)

stress: increased ________ _________ in blood, increased ___________

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