Cell Division & Cancer Cells

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Phases of mitosis (abbrev.)

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Phases of mitosis (abbrev.)

IPMATC

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2
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Phases of interphase

G1, S, G2

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3
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G1

Cells grow and organelles double

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4
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S

DNA replication

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5
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G2

Centrioles and spindle fibers are produced

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6
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Prophase

Chromosomes become visible, nuclear membrane and nucleolus dissolves, spindle apparatus appears

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Metaphase

Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

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Anaphase

Sister chromatids separate

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Telophase

Nuclear membrane reforms, chromosomes condense, and the spindle fibers disappear

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10
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Cytokinesis

Cytoplasm splits

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Hyperplasia

Uncontrolled cell division

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12
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Dedifferentiation

Loss of the specialized structures and functions of the normal type of cell from which the cancer cells descend

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Invasiveness

Ability of cancer cells to break through boundaries

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14
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Angiogensis

The ability of cancer cells to induce extension of nearby blood vessels

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Metastasis

Spread of cancer to other tissues

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16
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How does angiogenesis relate to a growing tumor?

It allows the tumor to have access to nutrients from the blood vessels that allow it to grow.

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Why are angiogenesis inhibitors useful in the treatment of cancer?

They block the growth of blood vessels to cancer cells

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List 3 inhibitors

Thalidomide, angiostatin, and endostatin

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Why do secondary tumors rapidly grow when the primary tumor is removed?

The main tumor releases stimulants AND inhibitors. The inhibitors block the stimulators from the secondary tumors. When the primary is removed, the source of the inhibitor is removed and the secondaries can grow.

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What type of tissue did scientists originally use to look for angiogenesis inhibitors?

Cow bone/cartilage

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How was the mouse experiment set up?

20 mice had a tumor that would spread to the lungs. Half of the mice were given angiostatin and the others weren't.

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What were the results from the mouse experiment?

The mice that got the angiostatin had no lung cancer, but the untreated ones had extensive lung cancer.

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Why is thalidomide useful in treating cancer?

It blocks new blood vessel growth

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Why must thalidomide be handled with care?

It can cause birth or growth defects

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