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Five major animal lineages

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1

Five major animal lineages

sponges, comb jellies, corals and jellyfish, protostomes, deuterostomes

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protostomes are

  • diverse and abundant (most of all animal lineages)

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3

ecological roles

  • live in virtually all aquatic and terrestrial habitats

  • can be herbivores, carnivores, detritivores -extends to human health

  • food sources

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4

model organisms

fruit fly and flatworm

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5

protostomes share a

bilaterian ancestor that was bilaterally symmetric and triploblastic

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6

developmental characteristics

  1. embryonic development of mouth before anus

  2. Inability of isolated early embryonic cells to develop into complete embryo

  3. Formation of coelom by splitting of blocks of mesodermal cells

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7

two major subgroups of protostomes

  1. lophotrochozoa - includes mollusks and annelid worms

  2. ecdysozoa - nematodes and arthropods

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8

water to land transition

opens up entirely new habitats and new resources to exploit

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9

adaptive radiation of plants

correlates with the protostomes transition to land

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10

new adaptations of protostomes

  1. Exchange gases

  2. Avoid drying out

  3. Hold up their bodies under their own weight

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11

roundworms and earthworms

  • high surface area to volume ratio -increased efficiency of gas exchange

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12

terrestrial arthropods and mollusks

  • have gills or other respiratory structures located in the body

  • minimized water loss when moving onto land

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13

animal belongs to lophotrochozoan if...

Has a (not all three needed)

  • lophophore -suspension feeding

  • trochophore - larvae swim and may feed

  • spiral cleavage

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14

rotifers

Cilia in the corona create a current that enables suspension feeding on microscopic food particles

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15

platyhelminthes (flatworms)

Turbellarians (free-living), flukes (endoparasites), and monogeneans (ectoparasites) have a “blind” digestive tract with only one opening for ingestion of food and elimination of wastes; tapeworms (endoparasites) have no gut or mouth and absorb nutrients across their body wall

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16

annelida

Polychaetes have diverse feeding strategies such as suspension feeding, mass feeding, and deposit feeding; almost all oligochaetes are deposit feeders in soils; about half of leeches are ectoparasites while others are predators or scavengers

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17

Mollusca

Snails, chitons, and cephalopods have a rasping structure called a radula that is specialized for diverse feeding strategies; bivalves use gills for suspension feeding

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18

ecdysozoan

grows via molting - shedding of exoskeleton or cuticle

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19

nemotoda

Sexes are separate in most species (C. elegans is mostly hermaphroditic); internal fertilizatioin leads to egg laying and direct development of offspring; individuals molt four times during lifetime

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20

tardigrada

Sexes are separate in most species; some are parthenogenic; some are hermaphroditic, able to self-fertilize; fertilization is usually external; may molt up to 12 times during growth

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21

onychophora

Sexes are separate in almost all species, and females are usually larger than males; fertilization is usualy internal; most species are ovoviviparous

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22

arthropoda

-Use specialized mouthparts to consume all types of foods from detritus and live prey to flower nectar and blood; serve diverse ecological roles

  • Most use jointed appendages for walking, running, jumping, and swimming; most also have wings; insect larvae such as maggots, caterpillars, and grubs move using hydrostatic Skeletons

  • Sexes are usually separate, and sexual reproduction is the norm (parthenogenesis is rare); fertilization is usually internal; may or may not have larvae and metamorphosis

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23

what is an arthropod

most important phyla in ecdysozoa

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24

arthropod body plan

  1. Segmented body plan

  2. exoskeleton

  3. jointed appendages

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25

origin of wings

did not come from limbs - changes in the cuticle

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26

types of arthropods

  1. myriapods

  2. insects

  3. crustaceans

  4. chelicerates

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27

myriapoda

relatively simple bodies with a head region and a long segmented trunk with many legs

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28

insecta

remarkably diverse and abundant in terrestrial environments; body has three tagmata: head, thorax, abdomen

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29

crustacea

most diverse arthropods of the sea; body has three tagmata or two (cephalothorax and abdomen)

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30

chelicerata

diverse on land, body has two tagmata: cephalothorax and abdomen

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31

deuterostomes

"second mouth" developmental distinction between protostomes and deuterostomes is now blurred

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32

three phyla

  1. echinodermata

  2. hemichordata - acorn worms

  3. chordata

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33

echinoderm

"spiny skins" - named for spines and spikes observed in many species

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34

deuterostomes have high diversity in

  1. Adult body plans

  2. feeding methods

  3. locomotion

  4. reproduction

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35

echinoderm synapomorphies

  1. redial symmetry in adults

  2. endoskeleton

  3. water vascular system and tube feet

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36

chordate morphological features

  1. openings in throat called gill slits

  2. dorsal hollow nerve cord

  3. notochord runs length of body

  4. muscular post-anal tail

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37

three main subphyla of chordates

1.cephalacordate 2. urochordates 3. vertebrates

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38

cephalacordate

small torpedo shaped animals with "fishlike" appearance - mobile suspension feeders - live on ocean floor

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39

urochordates

have external coat of polysaccaride - covers and supports body

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40

vertebrates

dorsal hollow nerve cord elongated into spinal cord; pharyngeal slits in embryos

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vertebrate synapomorphies

  1. vertebrate - protects spinal cord

  2. cranium - protects brain and sensory organs

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42

cartilage

strong, flexible tissue (polysaccarides)

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bone

dense tissue and blood vessels (calcium phosphate)

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44

vertebrate brains

  1. forebrain - sense of smell (forms cerebrum)

  2. midbrain - associated with vision

  3. hindbrain - balance and hearing *brain is key innovation in vertebrate evolution

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45

jawed vertebrates contain

cerebrum and medulla oblongata

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46

Data supporting evolution

  1. new fossil evidence

  2. phylogenetic analysis - combines fossil evidence and new data

  3. evidence from developmental biology - can test relations between different vertebrate lineages

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47

themes of evolution

  1. most vertebrate are extinct

  2. some traits evolved more than once

  3. traits are sometimes lost

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48

gnathostomes

jawed fish

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49

rapid diversification of feeding strategies led to

dramatic adaptive radiation of fish

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50

jaw formed by

mutations and natural selection

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51

bony fish

  1. Ray-finned fished

  2. Coelacanths

  3. Lung Fishes

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52

Lobed-limbed fish

coelcanths and lungfish

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53

lungs first appeared in

placoderms

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54

origin of lungs hypothesis

predicts early fishes filled this space by gulping air from the surface

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55

tetripods

animals with four legs; major event in evolution led to transition to living on land

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56

3 major lineages of tetrapods

  1. Amphibians

  2. Mammals

  3. Reptiles

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57

Amniota

all tetrapods other than amphibians

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58

amniotic egg

protective coating that reduced the rate of drying

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59

three inner membranes

  • embryo

  • yolk

  • waste

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60

mammals

monophyletic group of animals named for mammary glands which produce milk; earliest seen ~195 mya; endotherms

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61

three major lineages of mammals

  1. egg-laying monotremes

  2. pouch bearing

  3. placenta

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62

placenta

organ combining maternal and embryonic tissues

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63

evolutionary advantages of placenta

  1. offspring develop at constant, favorable temperature

  2. offspring are protected

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64

why is the yolk sac smaller in a placenta?

Because the need for nutrients is lower in a placenta because the embryo also obtains nutrients from their mother.

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65

reptiles

monophyletic group; second major lineage of amniotes besides mammals; adaptations for life on land; skin is water tight; breathe through lungs and lay amniotic ends; ectotherms

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66

Birds

part of the monophyletic group reptiles; also part of the monophyletic group dinosaurs; endothermic

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67

Three lineages of wings and flight evolution

  1. Pterosaurs

  2. Birds

  3. Bats

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68

parental care

physiological, morphological, or behavioral investment that improvs the likelihood of offspring to survive; is believed to play major role in evolutionary success of birds and mammals

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69

primates two min groupings

  1. Prosimians ("before monkeys")

  2. Anthropoids ("human-like")

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70

primate characteristics

  • hands and feet efficient for grasping

  • flattened nails instead of claws

  • relatively large brains

  • color vision

  • complex social behavior

  • extensive parental care

  • forward facing eyes

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71

great apes

hominids; large bodies, long arms, short legs no tail; humans are the only bipedal hominid

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72

Humans are closest related to

chimpanzees and bonobos followed by gorillas; common ancestor believed to exist 6-7 mya

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73

Four typs of hominids

  1. Gracile australopithecines

  2. Robust australopithecines

  3. Early Homo

  4. Recent Homo

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74

Gracile australopithecines

slender/bipedal

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75

robust australopithecines

three species: Massive cheek teeth and jaws Very large cheekbones A sagittal crest—a flange of bone at the top of the skull

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76

early homo

– Flatter and narrower faces – Smaller jaws and teeth – Larger braincases

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77

recent homo

– Flatter faces – Smaller teeth – Larger braincases

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78

derived character of humans is

bipedalism

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79

fossil evidence supports what origins of humans?

Africa and subsequent migration

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80

Have humans stopped evolving?

No all four processes of evolution still occur today

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