Earth Science: The Universe and Solar System, Earth Systems

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The Universe

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1

The Universe

  • comprises all space and time, and all matter & energy in it

  • made up of 4.6% baryonic matter, 24% cold matter, and 71.4% dark energy

  • it is 13.8 billion years old

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Hydrogen, helium and Lithium

The three most abundant elements in the universe

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3

Baryonic Matter ? 4.6%

  • “ordinary” matter consisting of protons, electrons and neutrons that comprises atoms, planets, stars, galaxies and other bodies

  • How much of it is in the universe?

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4

Dark Matter ? 24%

  • matter that has gravity but does not emit light

  • How much of it is in the universe?

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5

Dark Energy ? 71.4%

  • a source of anti-gravity; a force that counteracts gravity and causes the universe to expand

  • How much of it is in the universe?

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6

The Steady State Model

  • proposed in 1948 by Bondi and Gould and by Hoyle

  • pertains that new matter is created as the universe expands thereby maintaining its density

  • implies that universe have NO BEGINNING and END

<ul><li><p>proposed in 1948 by Bondi and Gould and by Hoyle</p></li><li><p>pertains that new matter is created as the universe expands thereby maintaining its density</p></li><li><p>implies that universe have NO BEGINNING and END</p></li></ul>
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7

The Big Bang Theory

  • states that one time, the entire universe was confined to a dense, hot, supermassive ball. Then, about 13.8 billion years ago, a violent EXPLOSION occurred, hurling this material in all directions

<ul><li><p>states that one time, the entire universe was confined to a dense, hot, supermassive ball. Then, about 13.8 billion years ago, a violent EXPLOSION occurred, hurling this material in all directions</p></li></ul>
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  1. General Relativity

  2. Cosmological principle

• what are the 2 ideas the Big Bang Theory rests on? (1) Gravity is a distortion of space and time (2) Assumes that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic; means every observer SHOULD see the universe with the same physical properties wherever you like and the same structure whatever direction you see it

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  1. Redshift

  2. Abundance of hydrogen, helium & lithium

  3. uniformly pervasive cosmic microwave background radiation

• The tests for expansion the Big Bang Theory has withstood

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10

Redshift

  • the shifting of absorption lines from the light spectrum towards larger wavelength(red light)

  • happens when a light source is moving away(receding) towards the observer

  • discovered by Edwin Hubble when he noticed that most galaxies have spectral shifts toward the red end of the spectrum

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Hubble’s Law

  • states that galaxies recede at speeds proportional to their distances from the observer

<ul><li><p>states that galaxies recede at speeds proportional to their distances from the observer</p></li></ul>
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Cosmic Microwave Background

  • a faint glow of light that fills the universe, falling on Earth from every direction with nearly uniform intensity

  • can be observed as a striking uniform glow in the microwave band coming from all directions-blackbody radiation with an average temp of about 2.7 degrees above absolute zero

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  1. Decelerating universes

  2. Coasting universe

  3. Accelerating universe

• The three possible fate of Expanding Universe

<p>• The three possible fate of Expanding Universe</p>
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14

Stars

  • formed when gravity cause matter to accumulate into large “clumps” and “strands” of interstellar matter known as NEBULAE

  • first developed approximately after 400,000 millions years after the Big Bang

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15

All stars, regardless of their size, run out of fuel and collapse due to gravity

• How do stars die?

<p>• How do stars die?</p>
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16

Hertzprung-Rusell Diagram

  • a graphical representation of the relationship between the true brightness(absolute magnitude) of stars and their respective temperatures

<ul><li><p>a graphical representation of the relationship between the true brightness(absolute magnitude) of stars and their respective temperatures</p></li></ul>
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17

H-R Diagram and Stellar Evolution

  • useful for illustrating the changes that take place in an individual star during its life span

<ul><li><p>useful for illustrating the changes that take place in an individual star during its life span</p></li></ul>
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18

Galaxies

  • collections of interstellar matter, stars and stellar remnants that are gravitationally bound

  • the first of them were small and composed mainly of massive stars and abundant interstellar matter

  • have 3 basic types

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Spiral Galaxies

  • flat, disk-shaped objects that range from 20,000 to about 125,000 light-years in diameter

  • have a greater concentration of stars near their centers, but there are numerous variations

  • makes up 30% of the universe

<ul><li><p>flat, disk-shaped objects that range from 20,000 to about 125,000 light-years in diameter</p></li><li><p>have a greater concentration of stars near their centers, but there are numerous variations</p></li><li><p>makes up 30% of the universe</p></li></ul>
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20

Milky Way

  • a large SPIRAL GALAXY whose disk is about 100,000 light years wide and about 10,000 light years thick at the nucleus

  • has at least 3 distinct spiral arms, with some splintering

  • part of the so called Local Group of Galaxies, which in turn is part of the Virgo supercluster of galaxies

<ul><li><p>a large SPIRAL GALAXY whose disk is about 100,000 light years wide and about 10,000 light years thick at the nucleus</p></li><li><p>has at least 3 distinct spiral arms, with some splintering</p></li><li><p>part of the so called Local Group of Galaxies, which in turn is part of the Virgo supercluster of galaxies</p></li></ul>
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21

Barred Spiral Galaxy • Andromeda Galaxy

• what kind of spiral galaxy is this? • give an example

<p>• what kind of spiral galaxy is this? • give an example</p>
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22

Elliptical Galaxy • Cygnus A

  • have an ellipsoidal shape that can be nearly spherical and they LACK SPIRAL ARMS

  • some of the largest and smallest galaxies are classified as this

  • makes up 60% of the universe • give an example

<ul><li><p>have an ellipsoidal shape that can be nearly spherical and they LACK SPIRAL ARMS</p></li><li><p>some of the largest and smallest galaxies are classified as this</p></li><li><p>makes up 60% of the universe • give an example</p></li></ul>
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23

Irregular Galaxy • Small & Large Magellanic Clouds

  • have no symmetry

  • some were once spiral or elliptical galaxies that were subsequently distorted by the gravity of a large neighbor • give an example

<ul><li><p>have no symmetry</p></li><li><p>some were once spiral or elliptical galaxies that were subsequently distorted by the gravity of a large neighbor • give an example</p></li></ul>
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24

Galactic Clusters • Fornax Galaxy Cluster

  • galaxies that are grouped intro gravitationally bound clusters • give an example

<ul><li><p>galaxies that are grouped intro gravitationally bound clusters • give an example</p></li></ul>
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25

Galactic Collisions

  • interactions between galaxies, often driven by one GALAXY’S GRAVITY disturbing another

  • common within galactic cluster

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26

Solar System

  • located in the Milky Way galaxy

  • comprises the Sun, eight planets, dwarf planets suck as Pluto, satellites, asteroids, comets, other minor bodies suck as those in the Kuiper belt and interplanetary dust

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• Orbits of the planets are ELLIPTICAL and are on the same plane • the periods of revolution of the planets increase with increasing distance from the Sun

• the solar system in Macroscale

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28

• Most planets rotate prograde(west to east) • Planets fall into 2 groups based on location size and density; terrestrial and Jovian

• the solar system in Microscale

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29

Terrestrial Planets • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

  • a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals, • give the 4 examples in the Solar System

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30

Jovian Planets • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

  • massive gaseous planets(gas giants) that extent far from the sun

  • planets that do not have solid surfaces, have many moons and rings • give the 4 examples in the Solar System

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31

Nebular Hypothesis

  • hypothesis for the origin of the Solar System

  • thought of rotating gaseous cloud that cools and contracts in the middles to form the Sun and the rest into a disc

  • in this theory, the whole Solar System starts as a large cloud of gas that contracts under self gravity

<ul><li><p>hypothesis for the origin of the Solar System</p></li><li><p>thought of rotating gaseous cloud that cools and contracts in the middles to form the Sun and the rest into a disc</p></li><li><p>in this theory, the whole Solar System starts as a large cloud of gas that contracts under self gravity</p></li></ul>
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32

Encounter Hypothesis

  • hypothesis for the origin of the Solar System

  • a “near miss” encounter occurs between the Sun and a passing star. Material is pulled from the stellar surfaces by tidal forces then cools and condenses to form planetary bodies • Problems: (1)hot gas expands not contracts and would not form planets. (2) encounter between stars are extremely rare

<ul><li><p>hypothesis for the origin of the Solar System</p></li><li><p>a “near miss” encounter occurs between the Sun and a passing star. Material is pulled from the stellar surfaces by tidal forces then cools and condenses to form planetary bodies • Problems: (1)hot gas expands not contracts and would not form planets. (2) encounter between stars are extremely rare</p></li></ul>
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33

Protoplanet Hypothesis

  • hypothesis for the origin of the Solar System

  • incorporates many of the components of the nebular hypothesis, but adds some new aspects from modern knowledge of fluids ands states of matter

  • In the Orion arm of the Milky Way galaxy, a slowly-rotating gas and dust cloud dominated by hydrogen and helium starts to contract due to gravity

  • as most of the mass move to the center to eventually become a proto-Sun, the remaining materials form a disc that will eventually become the planets and momentum is transferred outwards

<ul><li><p>hypothesis for the origin of the Solar System</p></li><li><p>incorporates many of the components of the nebular hypothesis, but adds some new aspects from modern knowledge of fluids ands states of matter</p></li><li><p>In the Orion arm of the Milky Way galaxy, a slowly-rotating gas and dust cloud dominated by hydrogen and helium starts to contract due to gravity</p></li><li><p>as most of the mass move to the center to eventually become a proto-Sun, the remaining materials form a disc that will eventually become the planets and momentum is transferred outwards</p></li></ul>
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34

Temperature • -15ºC to 115ºC

• factors that make a planet habitable

  • influences how quickly atoms and molecules move • acceptable range in Celsius where liquid water can still exist under certain conditions

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Atmosphere • 100 miles thick

• factors that make a planet habitable

  • keep the surface warm & protects it from radiation and small to medium sized meteorites • acceptable thickness in miles

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36

Energy

• factors that make a planet habitable

  • can either be light or chemical

  • with it, cells can run the chemical reactions necessary for life

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37

Nutrients

• factors that make a planet habitable

  • used to build and maintain an organism’s body

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38

Energy from the sun

• factor on Earth that Sustains Life; Energy

  • drives EXTERNAL PROCESSES such as weather, ocean, circulation and erosional processes, PHOTOSYNTHESIS

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39

Energy from the Earth’s interior

• factor on Earth that Sustains Life; Energy

  • drives INTERNAL PROCESSES including volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain building

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40

Water

• factor on Earth that Sustains Life

  • one of the most important prerequisites of life4

  • important part in regulating temperature, chemical reactions to matter, to aquatic habitat

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41

Gases

• factor on Earth that Sustains Life

  • makes up the atmosphere; greenhouse gases helps maintain the heat on Earth

  • essential to photosynthesis and other biochemical reactions

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42

Resources

• factor on Earth that Sustains Life

  • include water, soil, minerals and energy

  • have 2 broad categories: renewable and nonrenewable

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43

• In the ‘Habitable Zone” where you have just the right distance away from a star like the Sun • Made of Rocks • Big enough to have a molten core • Have a protective atmosphere

• Characteristics of a Habitable Planet

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44

System

  • any size group of interacting parts that form a unified and complex whole

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45

Open System

• type of system

  • allows energy and matter to flow in and out of the system

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46

Closed System

• type of system

  • allows energy to flow in and out of the system while matter cannot

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47

Atmosphere • through atmospheric circulation

• Earth’s Subsystem

  • the thin gaseous layer that envelopes the Earth

  • composed of 78% nitrogen(N), 21% oxygen(O), 0.9% argon(Ar), and trace number of other gases

  • along with hydrosphere, where the exchange of heat and moisture occur • How is the heat of Earth’s surface redistributed

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48

Geosphere

• Earth’s Subsystem

  • associated with solid portion of the Earth

  • includes the rocks of the crust and mantle, metallic liquid outer core and the solid metallic inner core

  • the physical structure of the surface of the Earth is shaped through process of plate tectonics[a process for this subsystem]

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49

Hydrosphere • through ocean circulation

• Earth’s Subsystem

  • the total amount of water on a planet; including water on the Earth’s surface, underground and in the air • How is heat reabsorbed and redistributed on the surface of the Earth?

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50

Hypsographic Curve

  • a graphical representation of the proportion of land at various elevations(meters above or below sea level)

<ul><li><p>a graphical representation of the proportion of land at various elevations(meters above or below sea level)</p></li></ul>
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51

Biosphere

• Earth’s Subsystem

  • areas or regions of the Earth that possess life; comprised of living organisms and nonliving factors from which organisms derive energy and nutrients

  • the set of all life forms on Earth

  • covers all ecosystems

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