AP Art History 250 Study Guide (2022-2023)

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119 Terms

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Apollo 11 Stones

25000-25300 B.C.E.

Mesolithic (Sub-Saharan) Africa

Charcoal on stone

Nambia, Southern Africa

Content: Oldest figurative art known in Africa, composite figure of animal

Context: Found using archeological stratigraphy

Function: Possibly animistic or shamanistic or mobilary used for better hunts, communicating with spirit world, establish power of shaman etc

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Great Hall of the Bulls

15000-13000 BCE

Paleolithic Europe

Rock painting, pigment blown through bones

Lascaux, France

Content: naturalistic animals (variety of species) and space, and abstract symbols

Context: found in remote area of cave (hard to reach and dark), continuously added on through years

Function: “hunting magic” animal hunting rituals, likely considered sacred

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Camelid sacrum in the shape of a canine

14000-7000 BCE

Fossilized remains of sacrum from extinct camelid

Tequixquiac, Mexico (Valley of Mexico)

Content: made of bone from base of spine with holes cut in to resemble a dog-like creature

Context: was made before camelid went extinct, much unknown

Function: for Mesoamerica sacrum = sacred

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Running Horned Woman

6000-4000 BCE

Neolithic Africa

Ochre pigment on rock

Tassili n’ Ajjer, Algeria (northwestern Africa)

Content: possibly hierarchical scale, horns imply goddess/anthropromorphic, elaborate ritual costume, area above head may be rain cloud, lack in face implies the figure may represent something

Context: Other pieces from same location are ritualistic

Function: Maybe spiritual/ritualistic or depicting ritual/dance

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Beaker with Ibex Motifs

4200-3500 BCE

Susa I period

Painted terracotta

Susa, Iran

Content: Uses registers, stylization, emphasized goat horns, decorative sense shows artist is aware of space and composition

Context: Found in burial site, made during neolothic revolution when people became less nomadic, uses tools

Function: Burial ritual, storage implies people had excess

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White Temple and its Ziggurat

3500-3000 BCE

Sumerian

Mudbrick

Uruk (modern Warka, Iraq)

Content: meant to be enjoyed from the outside, depressions on side meant to emphasize height and give perspective

Context: Ziggurat = higher and closer to god, taller place to appeal to gods, culture under theocracy (under rule of gods) and ruler was representation of god

Function: Worship

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Anthropomorphic Stele

3999-3000 BCE

Nabatean people

Sandstone

Arabian Peninsula

Content: Stele = standing stone slab, very stylized, barely human

Context: Found on trade route

Function: Possible landmark or guardian figure to ward off evil

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Jade Cong

3300-2200 BCE

Liangzhu people

Carved jade

Liangshu, China

Content: Jade is very hard and carved by abrasives (takes much effort/time), corners have rudementary faces, circle + square motifs (possibly sky/earth meaning)

Context: culture had abundance of food, making them able to support artisan class

Function: Unknown, but found in graves

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Palette of King Narmer

3000-2920 BCE

Predynastic Egypt

Greywacke

Heirakonpolis, Egypt

Content: contains narrative of unifying upper+lower Egypt, contains registers, gods as animals, heirarchal scale, composite figures, mix of angles, bent and broken enemies,

Context: Egypt could support artisan class because of abundance of food because of Nile River, hierarchal society

Function: to mix makeup on, protrays King Narmer as powerful

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Statues of Votive Figures from Square Temple of Eshnanna

2700 BCE

Sumerian

Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone

Eshnunna (modern Iraq)

Content: Votive = related to prayer, each statue is of an actual person (individualized), blocky figures, everyone wears skirts

Context: Comissioned by wealthy to maintain prayer, statue of women means women could have power/authority

Function: to keep the people depicted always praying

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Seated Scribe

2600 BCE

Old Kingdom, 4th Dynasty

Painted Limestone

Saqqara, Egypt

Content: Not idealized, could be an actual person, naturalistic, sitting attentively

Context: Found in tomb of pharaoh, scribe = important job

Function: For pharaoh to take with to the afterlife, shows importance of education in Egypt

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Standard of Ur from the Royal Tombs at Ur

2600-2400 BCE

Sumerian

Wood inlaid w/ shells, lapis lazuli and red limestone

Ur (modern Tell el-Muquayyer, Iraq)

Context: Lapis was from Afghanistan which shows there was trade, found in royal tombs/burial site = mass graves (buried attendants with them), standard = work meant to be supported by a pole

Content: Registers, composite view, War side = nude enemies for humiliation, bent and broken axis, soldiers in uniform to show discipline. Peace side = Queen Puabi, shows hierarchy bc top is nobles, bottom is preparation

Function: Displayed on pole, possibly a soundbox

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Great Pyramids and Great Sphinx

2550 BCE

Old Kingdom, 4th Dynasty

Cut limestone

Giza, Egypt

Context: Blocks transported by Nile river, triangle is sacred shape, being buried below triangle means full life cycle, built by Egyptians NOT slaves, has same location as Orion Belt constellation

Content: Built on mastaba (burial), obelisk (triangle tip) represents benben (creation of world/first shape ever)

Function: Pyramids = grave markers for pharaohs and associated with temple/rituals, sphinx = guardian figure, both meant to protect from grave robbery

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King Menkaura and Queen

2490 BCE

Old Kingdom, 4th Dynasty

Greywacke

Giza, Egypt

Context: Greywacke is extremely hard stone, royalty are associated with fertility

Content: Clothes (beard/hat) are symbolism for strength, not very covering clothes and pose holding eachother are symbolism for sexuality, idealized faces and bodies

Function: to symbolize the royals permanence and strength

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The Code of Hammurabi

1792-1750 BCE

Babylonian, Susian

Basalt

Babylon, modern Iran

Context: Reduplication = the more of something, the better (for dietys crown of many horns)

Content: Hammurabi is taller than diety, Hammurabi is getting his approval, cuneiform (wedged writing), “an eye for an eye” esque rules, diety has flame shoulders and crown of horns

Function: Symbol of authority, gives permanence to laws because they are written and displayed

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Stonehenge

2500-1600 BCE (made in 3 phases)

Neolithic Europe

Sandstone

Wiltshire, United Kingdom

Context: Stones were brought from miles away, each part is a different kind of stone, found in the middle of nowhere,

Content: mortice and tenon joint to keep it in place

Function: Not really known, hints include- heel stone lines up with equinox, burials are around stones but not inside, possibly a dolmen where body is put on top and birds eat flesh and bones are gathered afterwards

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The Ambum Stone

1500 BCE

Unknown artist/culture

Greywacke

Ambum Valley, Enga Province, Papua New Guinea

Context: Civilization believed in souls and importance of ancestors

Content: Incised arms and features, identified as anteater,

Function: Unknown, possibly ritual object

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Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall

1473 BCE

New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Cut sandstone and mudbrick

Near Luxor, Egypt

Context: painted and carved to please the gods

Content: over 100 columns (to represent papyrus plants and flowers), statue of Amun Re is sacred and god of gods, each pharoah adds a different pylon, includes preists quarters, learning centers and shops, once supported a stone roof, post and lintel technique before the arch

Function: Religious structure, not for public only royal, priests and gods

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Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

1473 BCE

New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Sandstone, partially carved into rock cliff, red granite

Near Luxor Egypt

Context: Hatshepsut was woman with authority of pharaoh, created her own, built against cliff face (gives permanence),

Content: Kneeling figures represent Hatshepsut as a sphinx with royal symbols (beard, head cloth),

Function: Mortuary temple used for rituals, asserts Hatshepsut’s authority

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Akhenaton, Nefertiti and their Three Daughters

1353 BCE

New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Limestone

Amarna, Egypt

Context: Akhenaton believed in ONLY Aten/the sun god, Nefertiti ruled by his side

Content: Hierarchal scale shows the two figures as same height so similar power, sun represents sun god reaching to royals, naturalistic because of realistic proportions like wide hips and stomachs, composite figures, stylized because very rounded and overall proportions aren’t naturalistic, uses compositional skills, hieroglyphics

Function: Heiroglyphics record Akhenaton, Nefertiti and their three daughters and the scene

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Tutankhamun’s tomb (innermost coffin)

1323 BCE

New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Solid gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones (lapis, turquoise, etc)

Luxor, Egypt

Context: Only royal tomb found relatively intact, pharoah = god or divine

Content: Wings of isis, crook and flail were royal symbols, gold represents sun, many symbols of gods/goddesses to show his divine form and divine right to rule

Function: to hold/preserve/protect body through the afterlife

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Last Judgement of Hu-nefer (from Book of the Dead)

1275 BCE

New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty

Painted Papyrus Scroll

Thebes, Egypt

Context: Hunefer was a scribe, scribe was a respected job

Content: Continuous narrative, shows a narrative through people being repeated in many scenes, depicts many gods and dieties, composite figures, hieroglyphs

Function: To be buried with the person to lead them through the afterlife

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Tlalico female figurine

1200-900 BCE

Tlatico peoples

Ceramic

Central Mexico

Context: Found in graves, multiple similar figurines were found with a variety of headdresses

Content: Hair is made of different clay using a tool for texture, wide hips, pinched waist, shows that region had a style/culture, lively/intimate poses and expressions

Function: Unknown

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Terra Cotta fragment

1000 BCE

Lapita people

Incised terracotta

Solomon Islands, Remote Oceana (East of Australia)

Context: Found all over set of islands

Content: Fragments of pottery, shows development in pacific style, complex, decorative symbols like hashes and circles = “design grammar”

Function: Used to follow migration/trade routes of Lapita people

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Chavin de Huantar

900-500 BCE

Chavin people

Stone (archetecture), granite (lanzon+sculpture), hammered gold alloy (jewelry)

Northern Highlands, Peru

Context: Remote in islands, built in phases, lanzon = notched wedged shaped stone, jaguar is symbol of power,

Content: Lanzon has face with big eyes+teeth+claws+human+animal+jaguar+curvelinear style+ composite figure+one hand up/down for sky and earth, built to hear whistling sounds through the channels, inside has inner maze to sanctum,

Function: Religious/sacred complex

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Lamassu from the Citadel of Sargon II

720 BCE

Neo-Assyrian

Alabaster

Dur Sharrrukin, Iraq (near East)

Context: War was common in area because limited resources, Assyrian rule was violent and authoritative, figures at gates,

Content: Walls around have reliefs of war/peace, Lamassu figures are strong/solid/rigid/upright, wears horned crown of divinity and beard = power, walking and moving, cuneiform script has dedications to king from gods, human + bull/lion to show strength, faces styled after kings,

Function: Guardian figures, show authority

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Athenian Agora

600 BCE

Archaic+Classical+Hellenistic Greek

Marble (architecture), plan/layout

Athens, Greece

Context: Kings were patrons, at heart of city

Content: One of earliest examples of secular architecture

Function: Yearly ritual from Agora to Acropolis, secular space for men to meet and “pursuit of the mind” AKA daily life, contains temple of Hepthestis

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Anavysos Kouros

530 BCE

Archaic Greek

Marble with remnants of paint

Attica, Greece

Context: Had influence from Egyptians because of trade,

Content: Free standing, generic statue to represent the ideal male form, “heroic nudity”, stiff, blocky, traditional hair braiding, archaic smile, not specific depiction of a person/individualistic

Function: Funerary statue (of noble son who died in war)

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Peplos Kore from the Acropolis

530 BCE

Archaic Greek

Marble with painted details

Athens, Greece

Context: Shows linear improvement from Anavysos Kore because its more naturalistic + has better proportions + marble is more “fleshy”, used to be painted

Content: Wearing peplos which is a rectangle cloth pinned at shoulders, representative of female youth, females in Greece were not nude until Hellenistic period, muffin top shows more naturalism, draping hair,

Function: Either offerings to god or POSSIBLY depiction of god

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Sarcophagus of the Spouses

520 BCE

Etruscan

Terra cotta

Cerveteri, Italy

Context: Etruscans and Greeks influenced eachother (see archaic smile), terra cotta is additive sculpture,

Content: Husband and wife being immortalized in afterlife, preserves youth through afterlife (very smooth features), they are eating/lounging/dining and interacting with viewer, stylized but still naturalistic, angular features, almond eyes, still unique to individual person, hair drapery emphasize form, has fully finished back of sculpture out of concern for the afterlife

Function: Holds ashes

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Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes

520 - 465 BCE

Persian (=Archaemenid Empire)

Limestone

Persopolis, Iran

Context: Archaemenid Empire was large and didn’t rule with intimidation,

Content: Contains Lamassu sculptures, bull capitals with rosettes (bull=strength/fertility/life), reliefs depict subjugated ambassadors and vassals bringing tributes in processions, military, bulls and lionesses fighting

Function: Show authority of king

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Temple of Minerva and Sculpture of Apollo

510 BCE

Etruscan

Wood (original temple), mud brick, tufa (volcanic rock), terra cotta

Assissi, Italy

Context: info gotten from Vetruvius’s writing, influenced by Greek but made of terra cotta to allow for more sculptural expression

Content:Temple has tuscan order (rounded column, simple disk capital, influenced roman design), decorated roof (acroteria/figures on roof), pitched roof makes rain drain better. Sculpture has drapery to emphasize striding leg, stylized, almost geometric, archaic smile, braids emphasize shoulder

Function: Worship

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Tomb of the Triclinium

480 BCE

Etruscan

Tufa (volcanic rock) and fresco

Tarquinia, Italy

Context: Triclinium = 3 couch dining room, women were expected to stay inside (pale) and men work outside (tan), Etruscan funerals were festive to share a final meal with deceased before afterlife, ceiling (lozenge) pattern imitates fabric tent

Content: Single chamber with fresco wall decor, depicts banquet/dinner party with dancers and musicians, each (of 3) couch has 1 girl+1 boy+attendants, girls were pale (gender typing), registers

Function: to contain remains of deceased and offerings, served to reinforce social/political status with visual reminders

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Niobides Krater

450 BCE

Classical Greek

Clay, red-figure technique, with white highlights

Orvetio, Italy

Context: Red figures against black background, allows for more details, between archaic and classical, possibly related to Greek wall paintings (known from writing)

Content: Depicts story of Niobid (14 kids who she bragged about, Apollo and Artemis get revenge), Artemis distinguished by bow and arrow, Apollo by ___, illusion of space from multiple ground lines, other side depicts Heracles (club and tiger skin) on platform being asked for protection by surrounding warriors,

Function: To store water and wine (calyx krater)

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Doryphoros

450 BCE

Classical Greek / Polykleitos

Roman copy (marble) of Greek original (bronze)

Context: Romans copied Greeks because Greek culture symbolized a desirable way of life (leisure, arts, luxury, learning), marble copies were often buried and are often a lil broken, roman started copying Greeks when started conquering in 211 BCE

Content: Standard of beauty/canon/idealized form, a beauty of proportions not elements, contrapposto (counterbalancing body and S curve), had to have supports because of brittle marble

Function: considered a “canon” as in used to be an idealed form that can be studied and replicated, focus on perfection, found in place where athletes worked out so possibly used as muscle inspo

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Acropolis, Iktinos and Kallikrates

447 BCE

Classical Greek

Marble

Athens, Greece

Context: Athena won over Poseidon :3 on top of hill?

Content: Temple of Athena, covered in sculptures/reliefs depicting warfare (signify ascension of Greece), wet drapery, ionic orders, contains metopes with warfare,

Function: Symbol of the birth of democracy, also religious processions, festivals

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Grave stele of Hegeso, Kallimachos

410 BCE

Classical Greek

Marble and paint

Athens, Greece

Context: At the time, women lived restricted lives at home, women were defined by their relationship with men

Content: Drapery closely follows and emphasizes the form, solumn and quiet mood

Function: funerary grave marker, private art (not owned/funded by the state)

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Treasury and Great Temple

400 BCE

Nabatean people

Cut rock

Petra, Jordon

Context: At trade center and capital, thought to contain hidden treasure,

Content: Carved into the desert, blend of cultures

Function: Royal tomb

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Great Stupa at Sanchi

300 BCE

Maurya, late Sunga Dynasty

Stone masonry, sandstone on dome

Madhya Pradesh, India

Context: Buddism is based of meditation+nirvana+no gods just following Buddha,

Content: Gateway/torana depicts narrative scenes of local dieties to be familiar to those visiting,

Function: Buddhist ambulatory temple, meant to be walked around while meditating, represents burial mound

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Terracotta Warriors from the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor of China

221 BCE

Qin dynasty

Painted terracotta

Mount Li, China

Context: Emperor was obsessed with immortality, he united region,

Content: All underground, also contained servants+gems+valuables+etc, each warrior face and clothes are unique/individualized,

Function: Made to protect the Emperor in the afterlife

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Funeral Banner of Lady Dai (Xin Zhui)

180 BCE

Han dynasty

Painted silk

Changsha, China

Context: Best preserved mummy, she was wife of a noble, also buried with other valuables, silk is expensive

Content: Narrative in registers, contains heavenly realm, attendants, body with mourners, underworld, dragon imagery, flat figures with minimal shading, more emphasis on lines, she is not idealized (chubby+handicapped) because she wasnt royalty

Function: Funerary

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Winged Victory of Samothrace

175 BCE

Hellenistic Greek

Marble

Samothrace, Greece

Context: Winged Victory = Nike,

Content: Standing on tip of ship, wet drapery, more dramatic pose instead of just contrapposto,

Function: Victory monument for naval battle

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Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon

175 BCE

Hellenistic Greek

Marble

Asia Minor, modern Turkey

Context: Made for general of Alexander the Great, the subject is battle of Gods and Giants, has inscriptions to say who is who, fits like a pediment but in the temple

Content: Struggle is clear (faces in pain, figures in mid action), dynamic composition, intense curves of figures, deep cut drapery, naturalism, anatomic accuracy, high relief

Function: To worship at

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Alexander Mosaic from the House of Faun

100 BCE

Republican Roman (copy of Greek original)

Mosaic

Pompeii, Italy

Context: Recovered from volcanic ash, copy of Greek wall painting,

Content: The subject is a turning point of battle (Battle of Isis), overlap and shadows and different perspectives create depth, depth needed because no background, stylized to show determination

Function: Decor to show authority

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Seated Boxer

100 BCE

Hellenistic Greek

Bronze

Rome, Italy

Context: Men athletes competed nude,

Content: The subject is a normal person/commoner, not idealized (beat up/bloody), idealized beard for dramaa, life like quality with incised eyes,

Function:

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Head of a Roman Patrician

75 BCE

Republican Roman

Marble

Rome, Italy

Context: Rome was a realy big empire, patrician = founder class of old roman families, romans greatly respected elders+veterans+military, uniquely roman (not Greek copy), inspired by Roman death masks (masks of deceased ancestors)

Content: Verism=a truthful depiction (sometimes highlighting real facial features), outward appearance is wise+aged+stoic+reflecting inward,

Function: Propogandistic, show “values” of society

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House of the Vettii

62 BCE

Imperial Roman

Cutstone and fresco (painting wet on fresco)

Pompeii, Italy

Context: Paintings in the house were inspired by Greek and illusionistic (made to make the room look bigger), had social mobility so this house was of a former slave,

Content: Walls are flat with painted on marble/columns,

Function: made to look Vettii(patron) look powerful

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Augustus of Prima Porta

5 CE

Imperial Roman

Marble (painted)

Rome, Italy

Context: Julius Ceasar’s great grand nephew/heir, took power after ceasar, great reformer and builder,

Content: Roman clothing (toga/pattern), narrative on his breastplate of peaceful diplomatic event, face is portrayed accurately, hair is crab claw locks (origin from alexander the Great, common in royal portraits), youthful/smooth and a liiiil but idealized, contropposto stance, gesture is making a speech, baby is cupid, and also dolphin behind him

Function: Propoganda and to attach face to name

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Colosseum (Flavian Ampitheater)

70 CE

Imperial Roman

Stone and concrete

Rome, Italy

Context: Named after scultpure nearby

Content: 4 different levels (bottom-rich/doric, most people/ionic, most people/ionic, women/corinthian-top), seated almost 50,000 people, could empty in 10 minutes, vaults in hallways, both decorative and efficient, oval, had cover over for shade

Function: Displayed animal fights, gladiator battles, public executions

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Forum of Trajan, markets and column

106 CE

Imperial Roman (Apollodorus of Damascus sculpture)

Bricks and concrete (architecture), Marble (column)

Rome, Italy

Context: Agora=secular and sacred, influental on Christian architecture, trajan expanded empire to furthest extent, market designed to fit irregular space, goods from all trade routes

Content: Market was multistory, crossvaults and vaults, forum had view of whole city from inside, continous narrative wraps around (Battle of Geisha), relief, chronological, detailed, shows military uniform and fighting style, has standards (like Ur), shows both military and logistical parts

Function: Market was secular and sacred for trade, forum commemorated military victory

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Pantheon

118 CE

Imperial Roman

Concrete with stone facing

Rome, Italy

Context: Concrete needs aggregate (something to bind around), may have been designed by Emperor, built originally to hide round roof, sponsered by Marcus Agrippa, materials imported from all over empire, CONNCCREEETEE

Content: Walls are thick and dome is thinner at top to support dome weight, corinthian temple, coffers in ceiling (make roof less heavy and breaks up smooth ceiling, makes appearance of Heavens), Oculus = hole in ceiling for lighting on main altar, lots of decor with square/circle (heaven/earth) motifs, built on human scale so when you step inside you can see all of it

Function: Temple dedicated to all gods

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Catacomb of Priscilla

200 CE

Early Christian Europe

Excavated tufa and fresco

Rome, Italy

Context: One of earliest christian symbols, new testament christian

Content: More than 5 miles, possibly first Madonna and child (shows that cultures inspire other cultures bc Madonna isnt just Christian), Orant Fresco has gesture of prayer, roman clothes, birds represent holy trinity, fish greek symbol, similar to roman style paintings, Good Shepard Fresco, =Jesus Christ, lamb of god (sacrifices), contropposto post (artistic contiuinity), possibly setting of earliest last supper drawing and eucharist, meant to eat inside

Function: underground carved structure to house dead bodies

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Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus

250 CE

Late imperial Roman

Marble

Rome, Italy

Context: Roman empire fell 470 CE

Content: Romans vs barbarians, Romans = serious+in roman clothes/armor/bigger at top, barbarians = in pain+begging for mercy+emotional+wear pants eww+crushed at bottom, combines hellenistic (emotional/drama) and classical (naturalism), chaotic, cramped, dynamic, bent and broken axis, hierarchical scale for person in middle, although no enviornmental depth it still does have angles and overlap to show depth, high relief, movement

Function: Coffin

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Buddha

400-800 CE

Gandharan

Cut rock with plaster and polychrome paint

Bamiyan, Afghanistan

Context: Bamiyan Valley is a buddhist kingdom, on silk road (trade), destroyed 2001 by Taliban,

Content: 2 statues east and west, made as a relief, feet cut round to walk around, flowing drapery, depicts both Buddhas (celestial/historical),

Function: meant to circumambulate around feet while meditating

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Santa Sabina

422-432 CE

Late Antique Europe

Brick and stone, wooden roof

Rome, Italy

Context: Building went from Roman to Christian, but building has Roman influence, based on roman basilica (long hall building) of Trojans Forum, unlike Roman DOESNT have hemicircle front and less columns, but like Roman because column fluting and corinthian

Content: focuses on longer hallway (axial), basilica (long building), very little exterior decor, flat ceiling (over time architecture has vaulted ceilings), christian architecture gets taller over time and gets rid of heavy weight, hallway leads to apse/altar, central space = nave, opened up space lets in light (heavenly oooooh)

Function: Dedicated to Saint Sabina, worship

<p>Santa Sabina</p><p>422-432 CE</p><p>Late Antique Europe</p><p>Brick and stone, wooden roof</p><p>Rome, Italy</p><p>Context: Building went from Roman to Christian, but building has Roman influence, based on roman basilica (long hall building) of Trojans Forum, unlike Roman DOESNT have hemicircle front and less columns, but like Roman because column fluting and corinthian</p><p>Content: focuses on longer hallway (axial), basilica (long building), very little exterior decor, flat ceiling (over time architecture has vaulted ceilings), christian architecture gets taller over time and gets rid of heavy weight, hallway leads to apse/altar, central space = nave, opened up space lets in light (heavenly oooooh)</p><p>Function: Dedicated to Saint Sabina, worship</p>
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Mesa Verde cliff dwellings

450 CE

Ancestral Pueblan (formerly Anasazi)

Sandstone (mortar and dressed stones)

Montezuma County, Colarado

Context: abandoned in 1300 CE, on face of sheer cliff and accessed by ladders

Content: has Kivas (pits) with wooden roofs and firepits and vents and deflectors and seating places = ceremonial and residential, murals are very geometric and represent animals/plants,

Function: homes, high on cliff for protection, winter its in sun for warmth but summer its in shade for coolness

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Longmen Caves

493 - 1127 CE

Tang Dynasty

Limestone

Luoyang, China

Context: Tang dynasty = age of Buddhism,

Content: Used local chinese styles (carving+reliefs), figures are both stylistic and naturalistic, depicts Buddha and celestial/heavenly figures, mudra = hand gestures,

Function: Establish authority through religion

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Gold and Jade Crown

550 CE

Three Kingdoms Period, Silla Kingdom

Metalwork

Silla Kingdom, Korea

Content: Found in burial site, Silla Kingdom was on silk road so had influence and was influenced, Shamanism = worships nature,

Context: Axis mundi = meeting of celestial and physical world, center part is tree of life, disks are fruit of life, bottom has “antlers”? reference to native deer,

Function: Represents a connection to the celestial world for burial and rituals

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Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well / Jacob Wrestling the Angel FROM the Vienna Genesis

early 6th century CE

Early Byzantine Europe/east Roman

Illuminated manuscript (tempera, gold, silver on purple vellum)

Europe

Context: Monks would travel and copy writing, shows transition from classical to medieval (naturalism focusing on volume rendering towards stylized and representational),

Content: Continuous narrative, written in Greek by hand on animal skin (expensive, wealth was symbolic of divine/holy), illumination = colorful drawings a if light shone through stained glass, genesis = 1st book of bible,

Function: to be read out/educational

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San Vitale

526-547 CE

Early Byzantine Europe (Romans after Rome)

Brick, marble and stone veneer, mosaic

Ravenna, Italy

Context: commissioned by Justinian,

Content: octagon shape (transitioning away from cross shape) means central plan, contains many mosaics, exterior supports radiate out so that light can go in through windows (heavenly), many niches and half domes and windows, columns show classical inspiration

CONTAINS JUSTINIAN + THEODORA PANELS:

shows hierarchy, halo = divine authority, shows churches support of royals, shows religious authority, women outside because no women in mass, their entourage shows how much support hey have (compare to Code of Hammurabi)

Function: Worship and show Justinian’s authority

<p>San Vitale</p><p>526-547 CE</p><p>Early Byzantine Europe (Romans after Rome)</p><p>Brick, marble and stone veneer, mosaic</p><p>Ravenna, Italy</p><p>Context: commissioned by Justinian,</p><p>Content: octagon shape (transitioning away from cross shape) means central plan, contains many mosaics, exterior supports radiate out so that light can go in through windows (heavenly), many niches and half domes and windows, columns show classical inspiration</p><p>CONTAINS JUSTINIAN + THEODORA PANELS:</p><p>shows hierarchy, halo = divine authority, shows churches support of royals, shows religious authority, women outside because no women in mass, their entourage shows how much support hey have (compare to Code of Hammurabi)</p><p>Function: Worship and show Justinian’s authority</p>
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Hagia Sophia

532 - 537 CE

Byzantine (Anthemius of Tralles and Isadorus of Miletus)

Brick and ceramic elements, stone and mosaic veneer

Constantinople (Istanbul)

Context: Still Justinian patron, originally Christian then turned Islamic (later added minerets), Hagia Sophia name = Holy Wisdom,

Content: Dome with windows on bottom appears to be held up by divine intervention/floating, columns inspired by ionic and byzantine, dome on arches instead of squinches/corners, central plan, later added calligraphy for islam

Function: place of worship, originally showed Byzantines authority

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Merovingian (Frankish) looped fibulae (clasps)

mid 500 CE

Early medieval Europe

Silver gilt worked in filigree with inlays of garnet and other stones, gold

France

Context: VERY OLD FRANCE (dark ages???), Barbarian = anyone at time of Romans who weren’t roman, near beginning of Christianity,

Content: Filigree = delicate metalwork with silver/gold wire, cloisonne = flat wire sat on side with glass/stones put it and made smooth, cross and fish are religious symbols of Christianity, more symbolism is suns/bird heads,

Function: Decorative clasp (luxury item), found in burial site

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Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between saints Theodore and George

600 CE

Early Byzantine Europe

Encaustic on wood

Egypt

Context: Mother and child composition is seen all throughout time,

Content: Icon = depictions of religious figures used for prayer and connection to divine and earthy manifestation and often found in churches, encaustic = hot wax used to color pigment and wax (quick drying and very permanent), very stylized with roundness and 3D form (similar to Justinian mosaic), individualized and rounded faces (large eyes big in byzantine style, sad and serene faces, hierarchal balanced composition, architecture in background to give illusion of space, hand of god at top

Function: At place of worship to be used in worship

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The Kaaba

631 CE

Islamic

Granite masonry covered with silk curtain and calligraphy in gold and silver wrapped thread

Mecca, Saudi Arabia

Context: Jihad = “holy war” AKA internal struggle, Hajj = annual pilgrimage to Mecca, this is direction where Muslims pray to, believed to have been made by Abraham and Ismail

Content: Karan = sacred scripture, Black Stone is very sacred

Function: part of necessary pilgrimage for Islam pillars, ritual where Muslims circumambulate to touch and kiss center Black Stone (to wash away sins)

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Jowo Rinpiche (Precious one)

641 CE (probably)

Yarlung Dynasty

Gilt metals with semiprecious stones, pearls and paint

Enshrined in the Joknang Temple, Lhasa Tibet

Context: Lhasa is holiest place in Buddhism, Tibet has largest population of Buddhists,

Content: Face is placid+peaceful+firm+stern+steadfast, mudra is position of hands having meaning, very ornate (common for Buddhist art), inspired by historical Buddha as opposed to classic

Function: Meant to have offerings in front, because Buddha is eternal so still needs gifts

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Dome of the Rock

691 - 692 CE (with multiple renovations)

Islamic, Umayyad

Stone masonry and wooden roof decorated with glazed ceramic tiles, mosiacs and gilt aluminum + bronze dome

Jerusalem, Palenstine

Context: one of earliest islamic buildings,

Content: Contains calligraphy, geometric, vegetal and floral designs, rock itself is a sacred site, colonnades = rows of columns, ambulatories = aisles meant to walk through

Function: Sacred location for Muslims and Jews and Christians (for all different reasons)

<p>Dome of the Rock</p><p>691 - 692 CE (with multiple renovations)</p><p>Islamic, Umayyad</p><p>Stone masonry and wooden roof decorated with glazed ceramic tiles, mosiacs and gilt aluminum + bronze dome</p><p>Jerusalem, Palenstine</p><p>Context: one of earliest islamic buildings,</p><p>Content: Contains calligraphy, geometric, vegetal and floral designs, rock itself is a sacred site, colonnades = rows of columns, ambulatories = aisles meant to walk through</p><p>Function: Sacred location for Muslims and Jews and Christians (for all different reasons)</p>
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Great Mosque of Isfahan

700 CE + restorations/additions

Islamic, Persian, Timurid and Safivid dynasties

Stone, brick, wood, plaster and glazed ceramic tiles

Isfahan, Iran

Context:

Content: Minnerets are used to call people to prayer, mihrabs/domes have hypostyles (clusters of pillars) and marks Qibla (wall showing direction to Mecca) and has stucco (plaster-like material), Iwans is a vaulted space that opens to a central courtyard, bubble wrap like roof, domes and ribbed vaulting (muqarnas?), no figurative decor

Function:

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Folio from a Qur’an

700 CE

Abbasid Dynasty

Ink, color and gold on parchment

Arab, North Africa or Near East

Context: possessed by wealthy people

Content: Arabic script, red and gold dots represent vowel sounds, not centered (for sacred reasons), suras = chapters, suras are marked by decorative golden registers,

Function: for worship and show of power ($$$)

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Lindisfarne Gospels: St Matthew cross carpet page and St luke portrait page and incipit page

700 CE

Early Medieval Europe (Hiberno Saxon)

Illuminated manuscript (Ink, pigments and gold on velum)

Northumbria, England

Context: manuscripts were popular in west because they were the only way writing could survive, monasteries were self sufficient homes for monks which contained churches and centers for learning,

Content: Written in latin (only monks could read it), crosscarpet page: interlaced birds, highly decorative ($$$), only heavily illustrated because it was a bible. Portrait page: gopels were important bc of Bible, interlaced styles with reliance on line, flat because all depth was in the lines, very traditional posing. floral and animal figures, made so expensive because it was sacred

Function: monks would read it to spread the education of the bible

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Nan Madol

700 CE

Saudeleur Dynasty

Basalt boulders and prismatic columns (coral filled in gaps)

Pohnpei, Micronesia (off of New Zealand)

Context:

Content: 92 man made islands off the coast, basalt was carryied by people from miles away because of natural log shape and show of power, up to 50 feet tall

Function: politcal and secular and religious wooh

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Yaxhilan

725 CE

Mayan

Limestone

Chiapas, Mexico

Context:

Content: Depicts lady Xoc and Lord Shield Jaguar in rituals, bloodletting, heiroglyphs say who and when, stylized and detailed, lintels were decorative and ornamental, depicts culture and religions

Function: for rituals and human sacrifices

<p>Yaxhilan</p><p>725 CE</p><p>Mayan</p><p>Limestone</p><p>Chiapas, Mexico</p><p>Context:</p><p>Content: Depicts lady Xoc and Lord Shield Jaguar in rituals, bloodletting, heiroglyphs say who and when, stylized and detailed, lintels were decorative and ornamental, depicts culture and religions</p><p>Function: for rituals and human sacrifices</p>
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Todai-Ji

743 CE

Song Dynasty

Bronze and wood sculpture, wood and ceremic tile roofing for architecture

Nara, Japan

Context: Sponsored by powerful families, shows mix of Buddhism and politics, Buddhism came from silk route,

Content: Contains Buddha with mudra (welcoming), traditional/classic Buddha, serene features, large stylized complex, double roofs, sculptures are naturalism and sylized and dynamic and strong and muscley,

Function: Represents shift in political rule of Japan, establishes authority, sponsor wanted to establish place as capital

<p>Todai-Ji</p><p>743 CE</p><p>Song Dynasty</p><p>Bronze and wood sculpture, wood and ceremic tile roofing for architecture</p><p>Nara, Japan</p><p>Context: Sponsored by powerful families, shows mix of Buddhism and politics, Buddhism came from silk route,</p><p>Content: Contains Buddha with mudra (welcoming), traditional/classic Buddha, serene features, large stylized complex, double roofs, sculptures are naturalism and sylized and dynamic and strong and muscley,</p><p>Function: Represents shift in political rule of Japan, establishes authority, sponsor wanted to establish place as capital</p>
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Great Mosque at Cordoba

785 CE

Umayyad Dynasty

Stone masonry

Cordoba, Spain

Context: On hill top, originally roman then christian then muslim then catholic, inspiration from Great Mosque of Isfahan

Content: Has mihrab (points to mecca), double arches and horseshoes shapes, has local styles and domes and classic islamis styles and very ornate and precious materials, ribbed vaulting, has hypostyle hall

Function: Worship, complex, librarys etc

<p>Great Mosque at Cordoba</p><p>785 CE</p><p>Umayyad Dynasty</p><p>Stone masonry</p><p>Cordoba, Spain</p><p>Context: On hill top, originally roman then christian then muslim then catholic, inspiration from Great Mosque of Isfahan</p><p>Content: Has mihrab (points to mecca), double arches and horseshoes shapes, has local styles and domes and classic islamis styles and very ornate and precious materials, ribbed vaulting, has hypostyle hall</p><p>Function: Worship, complex, librarys etc</p>
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Borobudur Temple

750 CE

Sailendra dynasty

volcanic stone masonry

Central Java, Indonesia

Context: influenced by Indian and Hindu art, protected site

Content: Megastructure, depicts Buddha his life and beliefs, influenced by Indian and Hindu art, meant to be circumambulated, stupa at top, 72 other stupas, overall in shape of madala (geometric design for meditation), references 3 states of conciousness to reach Nirvana, 2000+ reliefs

Function: Pilgrimage and worship

<p>Borobudur Temple</p><p>750 CE</p><p>Sailendra dynasty</p><p>volcanic stone masonry</p><p>Central Java, Indonesia</p><p>Context: influenced by Indian and Hindu art, protected site</p><p>Content: Megastructure, depicts Buddha his life and beliefs, influenced by Indian and Hindu art, meant to be circumambulated, stupa at top, 72 other stupas, overall in shape of madala (geometric design for meditation), references 3 states of conciousness to reach Nirvana, 2000+ reliefs</p><p>Function: Pilgrimage and worship</p>
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Angkor, the Temple of Angkor Wat, City of Angkor Thom

800 CE

Angkor Dynasty

Stone masonry, sandstone

Cambodia

Context: Largest religious structure in teh world

Content: Contains many reliefs, large symmetrical complex in mandala design, reaches upward,

Function: Originally Hindu (house of gods) turned Buddhist (place for contemplation), monument/tomb/legacy for king

<p>Angkor, the Temple of Angkor Wat, City of Angkor Thom</p><p>800 CE</p><p>Angkor Dynasty</p><p>Stone masonry, sandstone</p><p>Cambodia</p><p>Context: Largest religious structure in teh world</p><p>Content: Contains many reliefs, large symmetrical complex in mandala design, reaches upward,</p><p>Function: Originally Hindu (house of gods) turned Buddhist (place for contemplation), monument/tomb/legacy for king</p>
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Lakshama Temple

930 CE

Chandella Dynasty

Sandstone

Khajuraho, India

Context:

Content: High reliefs, sensual and smooth and stately and elegant and calm, depicts humans and gods, niches with representations of dieties

Function: Hindu, dedicated to Vishnu, meant to be circumambulated, symbol of fertility and prospoerous future

<p>Lakshama Temple</p><p>930 CE</p><p>Chandella Dynasty</p><p>Sandstone</p><p>Khajuraho, India</p><p>Context:</p><p>Content: High reliefs, sensual and smooth and stately and elegant and calm, depicts humans and gods, niches with representations of dieties</p><p>Function: Hindu, dedicated to Vishnu, meant to be circumambulated, symbol of fertility and prospoerous future</p>
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Pyxis of al-Mughira

968 CE

Umayyad dynasty

Ivory (elephant tusk)

Spain

Context: Muslim origin but secular art, coming of age present,

Content: symbolically depicts power and victory and warfare, shows animals (eagle = power, cats = food???), royal iconography,

Function: Contained perfumes, artwork shows power and $$$

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Travelers among Mountains and Streams

1000 CE

Northern Song Dynasty (Artist is Fan Kuan)

Ink and colors on silk

China

Context: landscapes were popular in China, Taoism = animals and humans should live in balance with universe/Tao, neo-confucianism = a search for absolute truth and yin/yang or li/qi

Content: Multiple techniques and materials, travelers are tiny which frames them as dominated by the world, elegant and well composed

Function: shows artists spiritual smartness/ is decor

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Shiva as Lord of Dance (Nataraja)

1000 CE

Chola dynasty

Cast bronze

India

Context: Shiva balances destruction and creation, hindu dieties are meant to be carried around

Content: Mudras show meaning and movement, fancy clothes, mid dance movement, on top of enemy, well balanced, ornate, calm, similar to Lakshama temple

Function: Hindu

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Conical tower and circular wall of Great Zimbabwe

1000 - 1400 CE

Shona peoples

Coursed (rows) granite blocks (no mortar)

Zimbabwe, Africa

Context: Still sacred today

Content: Large stone complex, 3 main parts, tower held grain

Function: House population on trade route

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Bayeux tapestry

1066 - 1080 CE

English or Norman

Embroidery on linen

Romanesque Europe

Context: Likely made by anglosaxon women skilled in embroidery,

Content: Latin inscriptions, depict warfare, romanesque style (hybrid of byzantine and classical greek and hybernosaxon), similar to Trajans column in artwork is chronoligical and continous warfare campaign,

Function: commissioned by Norman guy to commemorate his brother for invading England and taking the throne, shows authority

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Great Serpent Mound

1070 CE

Mississippian (Native Americans)

Earthwork/effigy mound

Adams county, southern Ohio

Context: snake = spiritual

Content: 1300 feet long, lines up with solstice, NO GRAVES INSIDE IT,

Function: ???

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Moai on platform (Ahu)

1100 CE

Rapa Nui peoples

Volcanic tuff figures on a basalt base

Rapa Nui, Easter Island

Context:

Content: Figures backs are facing the water, 887 heads, very stylized and rectangular, ceremonial carvings on back

Function: Religious honoring of dead/contains souls of dead, protecting the island

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Church of Saint Foy and Reliquary

1130 CE

Romanesque Europe

Stone (architecture), stone and paint (tympanum), gold silver gemstone, and enamel over wood (reliquary)

Conques, France

Context: Tympanum = above an entrance

Content: has a barrel-vaulted nave lined with arches on the interior.”, layout helps flow of traffic, tympanum is a relief carving warning those who walk under it of the dangers of sin, reliquary holds remains of saint,

Function: Pilgramage church

<p>Church of Saint Foy and Reliquary</p><p>1130 CE</p><p>Romanesque Europe</p><p>Stone (architecture), stone and paint (tympanum), gold silver gemstone, and enamel over wood (reliquary)</p><p>Conques, France</p><p>Context: Tympanum = above an entrance</p><p>Content: has a barrel-vaulted nave lined with arches on the interior.”, layout helps flow of traffic, tympanum is a relief carving warning those who walk under it of the dangers of sin, reliquary holds remains of saint,</p><p>Function: Pilgramage church</p>
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Chatres Cathedral

1145 CE

French Gothic

Limestone, stained glass

Chatres, France

Context: power came from tunic of virgin mary,

Content: windows focus on light and geometry, very heavy so lots of vaulting and supports, 3 levels

Function: Worship also a center for learning and to live at

<p>Chatres Cathedral</p><p>1145 CE</p><p>French Gothic</p><p>Limestone, stained glass</p><p>Chatres, France</p><p>Context: power came from tunic of virgin mary,</p><p>Content: windows focus on light and geometry, very heavy so lots of vaulting and supports, 3 levels</p><p>Function: Worship also a center for learning and to live at</p>
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Dedication Page with Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France, Scenes from the Apocalypse from Bibles moralisees

1194 CE

Gothic Europe

Illuminated manuscript (ink, tempera and gold leaf on vellum)

Paris, France

Context: Louis IX and Blanche of Castille were rulers at time

Content: depicts monk instructing scribe and Louis, gothic = elongated and fragile style,

Function: reinforce religious ideas, made for royal houses

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Great Mosque of Djenne

1200 CE

Sudano-Sahelian people

Adobe and mudbrick

Mali, Africa

Context: Has to be restored by people every few years

Content: Flat roof with terra cotta lids that let in fresh air, big pillars for support, 3 minerets, ostrich eggs at top to symbolize fertility and purity, horizontal timber beams serve as support and as scaffolding for replaster event,

Function: Political symbol of power, place of worship

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Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace

1250 CE

Kamakura period

handscroll (ink and color on paper)

Japan

Context: hand scroll = meant to be slowly opened and read (left to right),

Content: Depicts a battle/rebellion, isometric birds eye, detailed and individualized, shows graphic violence, continuous narrative

Function: Record history from the winners side

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Rottgen Pieta

1300 CE

German Gothic

Painted wood

Bonn, Germany

Context: Gothic style wants to invoke emotion

Content: depicts patient christ (sad, weak) as opposed to earlier depictions of triumphant christ (powerful, overcoming), shows sadness and hunger in his revealed bones and facial expression,

Function: To invoke emotion, used in worship and to feel closer to God

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Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel, including Lamentation (Giotto di Bondone)

1303 CE

Proto-Italian Renniescance

Brick (architecture) and fresco

Padua, Italy

Context: Giotto = made artwork comissioned by wealthy often to atone for sin,

Content: Frescos depitc lives of Mary and Christ and others, story told through images because most people couldnt read, frescoes cover walls and ceilings, continous narrative, seperated by registers, naturalism,

Function: Place of worship

<p>Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel, including Lamentation (Giotto di Bondone)</p><p>1303 CE</p><p>Proto-Italian Renniescance</p><p>Brick (architecture) and fresco</p><p>Padua, Italy</p><p>Context: Giotto = made artwork comissioned by wealthy often to atone for sin,</p><p>Content: Frescos depitc lives of Mary and Christ and others, story told through images because most people couldnt read, frescoes cover walls and ceilings, continous narrative, seperated by registers, naturalism,</p><p>Function: Place of worship</p>
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Golden Haggadah (The Plagues of Egypt, Scenes of Liberation, and Preparation for Passover)

1320 CE

Jewish

Illuminated manuscript (pigments and gold leaf on vellum)

Barcelona, Spain

Context: Haggadah = tells story of passover,

Content: Records history of origin of Passover, very luxurious, inspired by gothic and christian art,

Function: Show off wealth of owner, ceremonial for Passover (educational)

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Basin (Baptisetere de St. Louis)

1320 - 1340 CE

Mamluk

Brass inlaid with gold and silver

Louvre, France

Context: Unknown how it got to France but has Islamic origin (Egypt/Syria), signed by artist

Content: Depicts (muslim) military figures, has Muslim iconography, very intricate details, has symbol of France (unknown how it got there), registers, complex designs of abstract and nonabstract animals

Function: Used for baptism of French royals, shows power

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Bahram Gur Fights the Karg, folio from the Great Il-Kanid Shahnama

1330 - 1340 CE

Islamic Persian

Ink, opaque watercolor, gold and silver on paper

Central Asia

Context: Made after Mongols first invaded, painted by mongols, Shahnama has lots of national pride in it for Iran,

Content: Stylized anatomy, bent and broken axis, Asian influence, depicts king defeating a horned wolf, king is warrior with weapon but also ruler with rich clothing, dynamic movement, Islamic calligraphy

Function: Manuscript: story of Persian kings, tribute to king, show owners wealth

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The David Vases

1350 CE

Yuan Dynasty, China (Mongolian Empire)

White porcelain with cobalt blue underglaze

China (while part of Mongol empire)

Context: Shows influence from trade from the Silk Road, Elephants from India, Cobalt from Iran, Dragons and pheonixes from China, vines and flowers from Islam,

Content: Inscription states when and who made it and dedication to a general, contains registers, porcelain is very shiny and made of pure clay, inspiration from bronze vases, dragons and pheonixes are symbols of power for royalty

Function: Offering to temples

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Alhambra

1354 CE

Nasrid dynasty (Muslims)

Whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint and gilding

Grenada, Spain

Context:

Content: Court complex enclosed in walls with only 4 entrances, built with safety in mind, complex geometric tiles, contains patio and pool, arches and double arches, lattice windows to let in light, “The remaining surfaces are covered with intricately carved stucco motifs organized in bands and panels of curvilinear patterns and calligraphy.”, maquarnas = vaulted honeycomb ceiling

Function: Residence for nobles, barracks for guards, place for court officials to live and work

<p>Alhambra</p><p>1354 CE</p><p>Nasrid dynasty (Muslims)</p><p>Whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint and gilding</p><p>Grenada, Spain</p><p>Context:</p><p>Content: Court complex enclosed in walls with only 4 entrances, built with safety in mind, complex geometric tiles, contains patio and pool, arches and double arches, lattice windows to let in light, “The remaining surfaces are covered with intricately carved stucco motifs organized in bands and panels of curvilinear patterns and calligraphy.”, maquarnas = vaulted honeycomb ceiling</p><p>Function: Residence for nobles, barracks for guards, place for court officials to live and work</p>
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Templo Mayor

1375 - 1520 CE

Aztec

Stone (temple), volcanic stone (coyolxquahqui stone), jadeite (olmec mask), basalt (calender stone)

Tenochtitlan, Mexica

Context:

Content: Coyolxquahqui stone depicts diety with cut off limbs having been defeated with benk and broken axis and saggy boobs (to show age) and would be rolled to bottom of temple in ritual, Templo Mayor separated into 4 main parts, with 2 big staircases

Function: Temple is dedicated to gods, all have ritual/ceremonial functions

<p>Templo Mayor</p><p>1375 - 1520 CE</p><p>Aztec</p><p>Stone (temple), volcanic stone (coyolxquahqui stone), jadeite (olmec mask), basalt (calender stone)</p><p>Tenochtitlan, Mexica</p><p>Context:</p><p>Content: Coyolxquahqui stone depicts diety with cut off limbs having been defeated with benk and broken axis and saggy boobs (to show age) and would be rolled to bottom of temple in ritual, Templo Mayor separated into 4 main parts, with 2 big staircases</p><p>Function: Temple is dedicated to gods, all have ritual/ceremonial functions</p>
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Forbidden City

1400 CE

Ming Dynasty

Stone masonry, marble, brick, wood and ceramic tile

Beijing, China

Context: Made after a royal rebellion

Content: Red walls, yellow roofs, each building style shows a rank or heirarchy, spaces clearly distinguish who and what can be where

Function: Political and ritual center, home of emporers,

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Portrait of Sin Sukju

1417 CE

Imperial Bureu of Painting

Hanging scroll (ink and color on silk)

Korea

Context: commemorates person in life and after death, Sin Sukju = prime minister

Content: Everything in image designates status (stool, clothing, chest design, hat), face is not idealized, its individualized and naturalistic

Function: Idolized relic of families past (stays with the family), display the power/authority of Sin Sukju

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Ruler’s feather headdress

1428 CE

Aztec

Feathers (quetzal+cotinga) and gold

Mexica

Context: Gift from 1 ruler to another, feathers were important to Aztecs and had big industry

Content: Shiny feathers, part of elaborate costume

Function: Display rulers status and wealth, costume

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Pazzi Chapel and Basalisca di Sante Croce (Filippo Brunelleschi)

1439 CE

Italian Rennaissance

Masonry

Florence, Italy

Context: Has humanist influence (greek and rome revival),

Content: Gray outlines emphasize shapes on walls, stained glass windows, frescoes, pointed arches, wooden ceiling, DOME AND OCULUS at top, radiating lines towards oculus, 12 windows at bottom of dome, heavenly, many rounded arches, very classical greek inspo

Function: Place of worship, place for (monks) to gather and pray and meditate

<p>Pazzi Chapel and Basalisca di Sante Croce (Filippo Brunelleschi)</p><p>1439 CE</p><p>Italian Rennaissance</p><p>Masonry</p><p>Florence, Italy</p><p>Context: Has humanist influence (greek and rome revival),</p><p>Content: Gray outlines emphasize shapes on walls, stained glass windows, frescoes, pointed arches, wooden ceiling, DOME AND OCULUS at top, radiating lines towards oculus, 12 windows at bottom of dome, heavenly, many rounded arches, very classical greek inspo</p><p>Function: Place of worship, place for (monks) to gather and pray and meditate</p>
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