Unit 4 Vocab-APWH

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Primogeniture Laws

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Primogeniture Laws

English laws that only led eldest sons inherit land, leading younger sons to search for money via things like joint-stock companies.

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Omani-European Rivalry

A trade rivalry between the Omani of the Middle East and the European traders.

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Astronomical Chart

Map of the stars and galaxies

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Lateen Sail

triangular sail that made it possible to sail against the wind

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Astrolabe

An instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets

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Compass

an instrument that shows the direction of magnetic north

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Rudder

the hinged plate at the back and bottom of a boat, used for steering

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Carrack

Large Portuguese ship used for ocean travel

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Caravel

A small, easily steerable ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in their explorations

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Fluyt

Dutch sailing vessel

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Maritime Empires

empires based on sea travel

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Cartography

The science of making maps

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Christopher Columbus

He mistakenly discovered the Americas in 1492 while searching for a faster route to India.

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Mercantilism

An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

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Prince Henry the Navigator

This was the Portuguese Prince that gave steadfast financial and moral support to the navigators

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Bartholomew Dias

Dias was an early Portuguese explorer who traveled down the coast of Africa in search of a water route to Asia. He managed to round the southern tip of Africa in 1488, now the Cape of Good Hope.

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Vasco da Gama

the first European to reach India by sea sailing around the tip of Africa.

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trading post empire

16th Century. Built initially by the Portuguese, these were used to control the trade routes by forcing merchant vessels to call at fortified trading sites and pay duties there.

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Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.

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Manila

Capital of the Spanish Philippines and a major multicultural trade city that already had a population of more than 40,000 by 1600.

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galleon

a large sailing ship used especially by the Spanish in the 1500s and 1600s

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Monopoly

the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.

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Jacques Cartier

The first French explorer to explore mainland Canada in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

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Samuel de Champlain

French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635)

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Quebec

First permanent French settlement in North America, founded by Samuel de Champlain

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New France

French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763.

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John Cabot

English explorer who claimed Newfoundland for England while looking for Northwest Passage

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Jamestown, Virginia

the first permanent English settlement, founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company for economic reasons

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Henry Hudson

An English explorer who explored for the Dutch. He claimed the Hudson River around present day New York

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New Amsterdam

Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherland. This later became "New York City"

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Northwest Passage

A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.

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Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

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Conquistador

A Spanish conqueror of the Americas

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Smallpox

A highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, weakness, and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs; responsible for killing Native Americans.

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Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

the trading of African people to the colonies of the New World in and around the Atlantic ocean

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cash crop

farm crop raised to be sold for money

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African Diaspora

The separation of Africans from their homeland through centuries of forced removal to serve as slaves in the Americas and elsewhere.

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Creole

A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.

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Indentured Servitude

A worker bound by a voluntary agreement to work for a specified period of years often in return for free passage to an overseas destination.

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Chattel Slavery

A system of bondage in which a slave has the legal status of property and so can be bought and sold like property.

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Asante Empire

African empire established along the Gold Coast among Akan people

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Kingdom of Kongo

Kingdom dominating small states along the Congo River that maintained effective, centralized government and a royal currency until the seventeenth century.

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Aztec Empire

Central American empire constructed by the Mexica and expanded greatly during the fifteenth century during the reigns of Itzcoatl and Motecuzoma I.

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Inca Empire

Empire in Peru. conquered by Pizarro, who began an empire for the Spanish in 1535

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Francisco Pizarro

Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541).

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Atahualpa

Last ruling Inca emperor of Peru. He was executed by the Spanish.

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Hernan Cortes

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)

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Treaty of Tordesillas

Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.

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Hispaniola

First island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on second voyage to New World; Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World.

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Ecomienda System

System by which the natives were essentially enslaved, and received food from the Spanish in return

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Hacienda system

Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.

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Coercive Labor Systems

Included slavery, indentured servitude, serfdom, and other coercive labor systems in the Americas.

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Potosi

Mine located in upper Peru (modern Bolivia); largest of New World silver mines; produced 80 percent of all Peruvian silver.

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Mita System

economic system in Incan society where people paid taxes with their labor and what they produced

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Plantation

A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.

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Middle Passage

A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies

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Capital

money for investment

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Commericial Revolution

the expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries

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Price Revolution

period in European history when inflation rose rapidly

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joint-stock company

A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.

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limited liability

A form of business ownership in which the owners are liable only up to the amount of their individual investments.

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East India Company

An English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia.

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Dutch East India Company

Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.

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Triangular Trade

A system in which goods and slaves were traded among the Americas, Britain, and Africa

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Viceroy

Spanish; a governor who ruled as a representative of a monarch

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Viceroyalties

The name for the four administrative units of Spanish possessions in the Americas: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, and La Plata.

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Audiencias

Spanish royal courts in Latin America

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Creoles

Spaniards born in Latin America

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Peninsulares

Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class.

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Syncretism

a blending of beliefs and practices from different religions into one faith

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Santeria

Cuban religion that combines Catholic and West African beliefs

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Vodun

or voodoo is a New World syncretic faith that combines the animist faiths of West Africa with Christianity

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Candomblé

African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people. Mixes beliefs from the Yoruba, Fon, and Bantu cultures

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Virgin of Guadalupe

An apparition of the Virgin Mary said to have appeared to a Mexican farmer (Juan Diego) in 1531. She exerted a powerful attraction to Mesoamerica's surviving Amerindians and became an icon of Mexican identity and Catholicism

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Metacom's War

First large-scale conflict between colonists and Native Americans, waged in Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, and Connecticut (1675-1676)

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Ndongo

Central African kingdom that ruled during the 1400s

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Ana Nzinga

17th century Angolan queen who fought off the Portuguese colonizers by pretending to accept Christianity, but actually was partnered with their enemies, the Dutch, and albut actually was partnered with their enemies, the Dutch, and also developed a powerful trade nation instead of waging internal war.so developed a powerful trade nation instead of waging internal war.

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Matamba

A pre-colonial African state located in what is now modern day Angola. It was a powerful kingdom that long resisted Portuguese colonization attempts.

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Cossacks

Peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Cossacks led the conquest of Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

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Yemelyan Pugachev

Cossack who led an unsuccessful peasant rebellion in the 1770s.

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Pugachev Rebellion

unsuccessful peasant rising led by Cossack Pugachev during the 1770s; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafter.

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Maratha Empire

South Asian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818. An excellent example of yet another rebellion against imperial power (the Mughals) in this time period

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Pueblo Revolt

Native American revolt against the Spanish in late 17th century; expelled the Spanish for over 10 years

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Maroon Wars

Conflicts between the Jamaica Maroon settlements and the British after the British gained control of the island from the Spanish.

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