1.3: Cell membranes and transport

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Proteins and phospholipids

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37 Terms

1

Proteins and phospholipids

What the cell membrane is made of.

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2

Bilayers

Sheets of phospholipids facing each other.

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3

Extrinsic

Proteins that can be embedded in either surface of the phospholipid bilayer, and provide structural support, form recognition sites, identify cells and form receptor sites for hormone attachment.

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4

Intrinsic

Proteins that extend across both layers of the phospholipid bilayer, includes transport proteins.

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5

Transport

Proteins that allow molecules or ions to pass through during active transport or facilitated diffusion.

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6

Fluid-mosaic

Structural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move within the bilayer.

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7

Glycoproteins

A protein with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates. Used for cell-to-cell recognition.

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8

Glycolipids

Membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to lipids. Used for cell-to-cell communication and maintaining stability of the membrane.

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9

Glycocalyx

A carbohydrate coat that covers the cell surface, used in hormone receptors and cell-to-cell recognition and adhesion.

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10

Diffusion

Passive transport that occurs when ions and molecules move from a high to low concentration area.

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11

Facilitated diffusion

Allows water-soluble molecules through the membrane via transport proteins.

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12

Carrier

A transport protein that works with molecules binding to the protein, which reshapes to allow them through. Less efficient.

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13

Channel

Transport protein that works by opening to allow molecules through and closing to stop them. More efficient.

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14

Active transport

Diffusion that occurs against a concentration gradient - requires ATP.

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15

Osmosis

Water diffusion, where an area of high water potential will move down a gradient to an area of low water potential.

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16

Water potential

The measure of free water molecules and the tendency of water to move.

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17

Solute potential

The meaure of how easily water molecules can leave a solution.

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18

Kilopascals

How water, solute and pressure potential are measured.

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19

Osmotic pull

The pull of a solution with a low water potential on neighbouring water molecules.

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20

Pressure potential

The pressure exerted by the cell wall on the cell contents.

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21

Turgid

When a plant cell can take in no more water, supporting the cell structure.

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22

Hypotonic

A solution with a higher water potential than the cell it surrounds.

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23

Hypertonic

A solution with a lower water potential than the cell it surrounds.

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24

Incipient plasmolysis

The start of plasmolysis - when the cytoplasm begins to move away from the cell wall.

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25

Plasmolysis

A process where the vacuole shrinks, causing the cytoplasm to move away from the cell wall.

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26

Isotonic

A solution with the same water potential as the cell it surrounds.

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27

Haemolysis

When an animal cell bursts due to being surrounded by a hypotonic solution.

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28

Crenated

When an animal cell shrinks due to being surrounded by a hypertonic solution.

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29

Endocytosis

When materials are absorbed by extensions of the cell membrane or cytoplasm and converted into vesicles, requiring ATP.

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30

Phagocytosis

A form of endocytosis, occurs when solid material is too big to be taken up by other methods.

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31

Pinocytosis

A form of endocytosis, occurs when liquids are unable to be taken up by other methods.

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32

Exocytosis

How substances leave the cell - turning into vesicles and fusing with the cell membrane.

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33

Respiratory inhibitors

Inhibit the production of ATP, therefore limiting active transport.

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34

Co-transport

Occurs when molecules that use facilitated diffusion bond to other molecules to move them against a concentration gradient.

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35

Co-transporters

Special carrier proteins used in co-transport.

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36

Cholesterol

Sterol in animal cell membranes. Inbetween the phospholipid molecules, maintaining stability at higher temperatures and fluidity at lower temperatures.

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37

Flaccid

When a plant has completed plasmolysis, so the cell has no structural support.

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