Exam 3, Chapter 10,11,12 & 16

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What reactions capture energy from the organisms energy source?

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What reactions capture energy from the organisms energy source?

Cataolic

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_____ is the total of all chemical reactions occurring in the cell

Metabolism

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________ reactions build new organic molecules from smaller inorganic and organic compounds

Anabolic

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In thermodynamic studies, energy changes are analyzed in a collection of matter called a _____. All other matter in the universe is called the _____

system; surroundings

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________ is the science that analyzes energy changes in a collection of matter

Thermodynamics

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A rxn in which the forward rate is equal to the reverse rate is said to be at ______

equilibrium

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Cells must efficiently transfer energy from their energy-trapping systems to the systems actually carrying our work and also use various metabolic processes to replace the energy used in doing work. This is called the ______ _______

Energy cycle

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In order for the cell to be able to input energy into necessary endergonic reactions, energy-generating processes such as photosynthesis, fermentation, and respiration are used to produce _____

ATP

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A molecule that binds to an enzyme at a location other than active site and thereby alters the enzyme's shape, making it inactive or less active is a _______ inhibitor

noncompetitive

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The molecules formed by an enzyme-catalyzed

Products

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The reacting molecules in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction are called _______

Substrates

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The _______ ________ is the substrate concentration needed for an enzyme to achieve half maximal velocity

Michaelis constant (Km)

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A complex formed during a reaction that resembles both the substrate and the product is called the _____ state complex

transition

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RNA molecules that have catalytic activity are known as ______

Ribozymes

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Cells carry out three major types of work; which of the following involves the synthesis of macromolecules as well as the breakdown of substances for their energy?

Chemical work

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Cells carry out three major types of work; which of the following involves nutrient uptake and waste elimination?

Transport work

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Cells carry out three major types of work. Which of the following involves energy for cell motility and the movement of structures within cells?

Mechanical work

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T/F Energy can be redistributed within a collection of matter (called a system) or can be redistributed between the system and its surroundings

True

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______ is a measure of randomness or disorder of a system

Entropy

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The _____ law of thermodynamic states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed

First

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The _____ law of thermodynamics states that physical and chemical processes occur in such a way that randomness increases to a maximum.

Second

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The amount of heat energy needed to raise 1 gram of water from 14.5 to 15.5 is called a ______

calorie

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T/F The numerical value of the free energy change indicates how fast a reaction will reach equilibrium

False

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_____ is the total energy change that accompanies a chemical reaction

Enthalpy

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For the reaction A + B ---- C + D, the equilibrium constant is expressed as _______

[C][D]/[A][B]

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The change in _____ _____ is the amount of energy in a system that is available to do work.

free energy

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T/F The most commonly used practical form of energy used in cells is adenosine diphosphate

False

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A reaction that releases energy is ______

Exergonic

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T/F Some energonic reactions can be made to proceed forward if they are coupled to hydrolysis of one or more oh the phosphates of ATP

True

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A chemical reaction that requires an input of energy in order to proceed is _____

Endergonic

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The _____ is the electron acceptor in a redox reaction

Oxidant

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The ____ is the electron donor in a redox reaction

Reductant

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The standard reduction potential of a redox reaction is a measure of the tendency of the _____ to _____ electrons

Reductant, lose

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T/F The equilibrium constant for a redox reaction is called the standard reduction potential

True

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Which of the following is used as an electron carrier by a living organisms?

NAD+ NADP+ Ubiquinone

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T/F The ETC is based on the principle that redox couples with more positive reduction potentils will donate electrons to couples with more negative potentials

False

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T/F One of the components used during photosythetic electron transport is ferredoxin, a nonheme iron protein

True

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ETC molecules that only transfer electrons includes _______

Ferredoxin

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Which of the follow is/are true about enzymes?

All of the choices are correct

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T/F Each enzyme normally has a specific pH and temperature optima at which they function best.

True

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T/F The Michaelis constant (Km) of an enzyme is the substrate concentration that produces maximum velocity

False

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T/F Enzyme activity can be greatly affected by the pH and the temperature of the environment in which the enzyme must function

True

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T/F When the amount of enzyme present is held constant, the rate of reaction will continue to increase as long as the substrate concentration increases.

False

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T/F Enzymes increase the rate of reaction but do not alter equilibrium constants

True

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T/F Enzymes increase the rate of reaction by increasing molecular motion, thereby providing kinetic energy to drive the reaction

False

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Enzymes are usually named based on _____

The substrated they act on and the type of reaction they catalyze

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The most specific term used to describe a substance in a biological system that increases the rate of a reaction without being permanently changed by the reaction is a ______

enzyme

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The substrate of an enzyme binds at the ______

active site

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A complete enzyme that consists of a protein component and a nonprotein component is called a _____

holoenzyme

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A nonprotein component of an enzyme that is loosely attached to the protein component is referred to as a _____

coenzyme

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The nonprotein component of an enzyme that is firmly attached to the protein is called _____

prosthetic group

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If an enzyme consists of a protein component and a nonprotein component, the protein component is referred as the _____

apoenzyme

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If all available enzyme molecules are binding substrate and converting it to product as rapidly as possible, the reaction is said to be proceeding at __________ velocity.

Maximal

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A _____ increases the rate of reaction without being permanently altered by the reaction

catalyst

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Enzymes function as catalysts by ______

concentrating the substrates and correctly orienting them at the active site

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Enzymes catalyze a reaction by _____

decreasing the activation energy of the reaction

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The energy required to bring the substrated of a reaction together in the correct way to reach the T.S. is called ______

activation energy

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T/F One important ribozyme responsible for catalyzing peptide bond formation during protein synthesis is located in the mitochondria

False

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Which of the following is a reason for metabolic regulation?

All of the choices are correct

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In metabolic channeling, the regulation of metabolic pathways is controlled by the ____ of metabolites and enzymes involved in the pathway

Location

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Metabolic channeling involves the localization of ___ in different parts of a cell in order to influence the activity of metabolic pathways

Susbstrates and enzymes

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When the end product of a pathway inhibits the catalysis of the first step of that pathway, this phenomenon is called _____

Feedback inhibition

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Enzyme activity can be controlled by _____

All of the choices are correct

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In allosteric regulation, effector molecules usually bind ______

Reversible and non-covalently

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In a branched pathway with many end products, an abundance of on of the end products will usually inhibit ______

The first committed step in the branch of the pathway leading to the production of that particular product

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T/F Isoenzymes are different enzymes that catalyze the same reaction but can be regulated independently of one another

True

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Which of the following are components of the ATP molecule?

Adenine RIbose Three phosphate

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T/F In an ATP molecule, the phosphates are bonded to the adenine ring

False

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Based on phosphate transfer potential, which is more likely to happen

Phosphoenolpyruvate will transfer phosphate to ADP

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ATP has a phosphate transfer potential of 30.5, whereas glucose-6-phosphate has a phosphate transfer potential of 13.8. Based on these differences, which of the following will happen?

ATP will transfer phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate

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The energy made available during cell respiration and fermentation is used to make ____, which is then available to provide energy for cellular work

ATP

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What nucleoside triphosphate, other than ATP, provides some of the energy for protein synthesis?

GTP

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What nucleoside trisphosphate provides energy for lipid synthesis?

UTP

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As the difference in reduction potential between a redox pair increases, the amount of free energy made available _____

Increase

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In a redox reaction involving NAD/NADH and pyruvate, ___ will be the electron donor and ___ will be the electron acceptor

NADH, pyruvate

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Standard reduction potentials go in order from ____ to ____

least, greatest

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Where is the ETC located in bacterial cells?

Plasma Membrane

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In bacterial and archaeal cells, the ETC is located in the ____ whereas in eukaryotic cells, the ETC is located in the _____

Plasma membrane; inner mitochondiral membrane

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T/F Enzymes decrease the overall free energy change in a chemical reaction

False

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Until the discovery of ______, enzymes were the only recognized biological molecules that were catalytic

Ribozymes

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Catalytic proteins are known as ____ whereas catalytic RNA molecules are known as ______

Enzymes; ribozymes

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Which of the following reactions is catalyzed by a ribozyme?

Peptide bond formation during protein synthesis

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Which strategy can be used for regulation of metabolism?

All of the strategies may be used

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Feedback inhibition, covalent modification, and allosteric regulation are all examples of _____

Posttranslational regulation

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