CH 14 Genetics

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Components of translation

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Components of translation

amino acids, mRNA, ribosomes, translation factors, tRNA, enyzmes

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what is different about tRNA bases?

they have modified ones – I being imporntant

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EF-Tu

GTPase that transports charged aminoacyl tRNA to A site

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EF-G

Hydrolyzes GTP after peptide bond formation, conformation change in EF-G causes movement of small subunit relative to large subunit

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Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

charges tRNAs, is specific to each amino acid

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Svedberg unit

measurable size and shape, found via sedimentation

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Translation is dependent on what energy source

GTP

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Shine-Dalgarno sequence

base pairs with some of small subunit, allows for internal ribosome initiation, allows for translation of polycistronic mRNAs, made of purines, allow for being polycistronic

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Initiation

starts with AUG and Shine-Dalgarno sequence ( if bacteria ), Ifs bind to small subunit and attract mRNA, charged fmet tRNA binds to AUG codon of mRNA in P site, forming initiation complex

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Elongation

second charged tRNA enters A site facilitated by EF-Tu, peptide bond forms between AAs facilitated by EF-G, uncharged tRNA then moves to E site and out of ribosome

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Termination

signaled by UAG, UAA, UGA. GTP dependent release factors cleave polypetide chain from tRNA and releases it from the translation complex

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Are Prokaryotes polycistronic or monocistronic?

polycistronic

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Are Eukaryotes polycistronic or monocistronic?

monocistronic

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Polysomes

mRNAs with several ribosomes translating at once

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How does translation differ in eukaryotes

closed loop translation and no shine-dalgarno sequence

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Closed loop translation

mRNAs forms loop that is closed by Poly-A binding proteins bind to the cap binding proteins, allows for regulators of translation after stop codon

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Sir Archibald Garrod

studied alkaptonuria

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What happens when blocks occur in a pathway

build up of harmful intermediate

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AKU

single chemical, familial basis

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Beadle and Tatum Neurospora experiment

nutritional requirements were specific and single gened, layed groundwork for Srb and Horowitz

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Auxotroph

Does not have ability to synthesize one or more essential substances for growth

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ONE GENE: ONE ENZYME HYPOTHESIS

Srb and Horowitz, Hemoglobin

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Srb and Horowitz

ordering the intermediates in a pathway even when ones not involved, arginine mutants, found correlation between biochemical pathway and genetics

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amino acid types

nonpolar/hydrophobic, Polar/hydrophilic, polar and positive, polar and negative

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peptide bonds

covalent bond between the carboxyl group of one AA and the amino group of another

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secondary

folding into alpha helix and beta pleated sheet, caused by hydrogen bonding along alpha carbon backbone

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tertiary

based on R groups

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stabilizing factors

covalent disulfide bonds between close cytosine residues, ionic bonds, hydrophilic R on surface and hydrophobic R on interior, Van der Waals interactions

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Post transcriptional modification

N-terminus amino acid removed or modified, individual AA modified (phosphate addition by kinases), polypeptide cleaved to make active form

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