Key Terms Chapter 4

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54 Terms

1

culture

shared beliefs, values, practices, behaviors, and tech of a society

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2

cultural traits

visible and invisible attributes that combine to make up a group's culture

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3

customs

repetitive act of a group, performed to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group

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4

habits

repetitive act that a particular individual performs

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5

folk cultures

practiced primarily by small, homogeneous groups living in isolated rural areas

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6

popular culture

found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics

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7

cultural landscape

the combination of cultural, economic, and natural elements that make up any landscapes ALSO

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8

cultural realms

areas of the world that share cultural traits such as language families, religious tradition, food preferences, architecture, and/or a shared history. These cultural traits comprise a similar cultural landscape (although not the exact same) in each cultural realm

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9

architecture

traditional and modern, sometimes used to reflect power or honor indigenous people

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10

land use

what people care about tells what is more important to their society, beliefs, and customs

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11

hearth

starting point of a cultural phenomenon

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12

contagious diffusion

the cultural phenomenon spreads rapidly to almost everyone Spanish flu Islam Memes and viral videos

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13

hierarchical diffusion

starting with someone of power in society and spreading down the hierarchy to come people. Can also be that it starts in large cities and eventually spreads to smaller towns Clothing fads (not everyone begins wearing it) Specialty coffee shops

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14

stimulus diffusion

the full idea does not spread, but the main or underlying idea spreads Mcdonalds (has to mix in with the cultures of the place it is in)

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15

relocation diffusion

ideas spread through people physically moving and bringing cultural phenomena, innovations, diseases, and more with them Spanish brought over to places Spaniards conquered

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16

acculturation

when a group of people in one culture adopts traits from another

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17

ethnocentrism

judging other countries in term of one's own standards and often includes the belief that one's culture/ethnic group is better than others

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18

mentifacts

the ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge of a culture Religious beliefs Language Food preferences Folkways, taboos, mores, laws Intangible objects

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19

artifacts

visible, physical objects created by a culture Houses Clothing Architecture Toys Tools Furniture Anything that can be left behind

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20

sociofacts

the ways in which a society behaves and organized institutions Family school/education Government Religion Landuse Gender roles Basically GREEF

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21

infrastructure

needs met at basic level

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22

structure

society's economic, social, and political organization

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23

gendered areas

places in the cultural landscape utilized to reinforce or accommodate gender roles for men and women

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24

sense of place

unique attributes of a specific location: cultural influences and feelings evoked by people in a place

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25

sequent occupance/occupancy

the idea that societies or cultural groups leave their cultural imprints when they live in place, each contributing to the overall cultural landscapes over time. Most cultural landscapes are a mixture of historic and modern structures

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26

placelessness

loss of uniqueness of a place in the cultural landscape so that the place looks like the next or does not inspire any strong or cultural ties, Uniform landscape

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27

ethnic neighborhoods/enclaves

people of the same ethnicity clustered together in a specific location (typically within a major city)

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28

norms

agreed upon cultural practices or standards that guide the behavior of a culture

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29

taboos

behaviors heavily discouraged by a culture

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30

cultural convergence

people start having one mass, global culture

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31

Centrifugal & Centripetal Factors

push and pull factors

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32

cultural divergence

people may start to leave their culture of abandon certain elements of it

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33

church/cathedral

a building used for public Christian worship

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34

Mosque/Minaret

muslim place of worship

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35

temple

a building devoted to the worship, or regarded as the dwelling place, of a god or gods or other objects of religious reverence

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36

shrine

a place regarded as holy because of its associations with a divinity or a sacred person or relic, marked by a building or other construction

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37

torii gate

traditional japanese gate found at the entrance of a shinto shrine (marks transition from the mundane to the sacred)

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38

folkways

norms that stem from and organize casual interactions, and emerge out of repetition and routines (unconscious in operation); mark distinction between rude and polite behavior = pressuring to act certain way

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39

mores

more strict than folkways; determine what is considered moral and ethical behavior (structure difference between right and wrong)

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40

law

norm that is formally inscribed at the state or federal level and is enforced by police/other government agents

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41

cultural icons

a person or an artifact that is identified by members of a culture as representative of that culture.

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42

indigenous (people)

people or objects that are native to a certain region or environment.

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43

cultural institutions

institutions with acknowledged mission to engage in the conversation, interpretation, and dissemination of cultural, scientific, and environmental knowledge, and promote activities meant to inform and educate citizens on associated aspects of culture, history, science, and the environment

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44

folklore

traditional beliefs, customs, and stories of a community, passed through the generations by word of mouth

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45

assimilation

process of taking in a fulling understanding info or ideas

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46

culture shock

being unsure hoe to navigate the new culture's institutions

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47

cultural integration

The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system.

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48

segregation

the action or state of setting someone or something apart from other people or things or being set apart

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49

syncretism

action of combing or uniting of different religions, cultures, or schools of thought

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50

multiculturalism

presence of, or support for the presence of, several distinct cultures or ethnic groups within a society

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51

material cultural artifacts

Artifacts of a society that represent adaptations to the social and physical environment.

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52

non

materials cultural concepts

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53

activity areas

the local areas within which people move or travel in the course of their daily activities

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54

commodification

the action or process of treating something as a mere commodity

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