Biology test 3

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Energy

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Energy

the capacity of a cell to do work

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Energy Cycle

Plants absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy

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Types of energy

Chemical, Light, Heat, Wind, Electrical , Nuclear

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Potential Energy

Stored energy, glucose (C6H12O6) Capacity to do work

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Kinetic

Used Energy, Energy of Motion

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Food Molecules

Chemical bonds are potential energy, Glucose, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins

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Oxidation-Reduction

transfers energy

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Redox Reaction

energy transfers in organisms, electron transport chains

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Heat Energy in cells

Cells are too small to maintain a significant internal temperature

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Heat Measurement

1 joule = .239 calories, kilocalories

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Thermodynamics

the study of energy and its transformations

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Transformation

No energy is being made or destroyed

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Entropy

heat speeds up molecules creating disorder

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Metabolism

the sum of all chemical reactions in a cell, makes energy available for cellular processes, putting together or breaking down

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Heterotroph

consume food to produce energy

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Autotrophs

photosynthesis to produce energy

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Anabolic reactions

Building molecules, linking of amino acids to form proteins

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Catabolic reactions

breaking down molecules, degradation of starch to monosaccharides

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Delta G

Free energy left at the end of a reaction

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Exergonic Reaction

Catabolic, Delta G<0, Spontaneous

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Endergonic Reaction

Anabolic, Delta G>0

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ATP

energy currency of cells, not stored well in cells (negative charges repel each other)

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Enzymes

speed up reaction by lowering the activation energy, most are proteins

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Activation Energy

energy needed to destabilize chemical bonds

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Substrate

reactant which binds to enzyme

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Product

end result or reaction

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Active site

enzymes catalytic site, substrate fits into active site

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Conezyme or Cofactor

assists the substrate in making the active site whole, vitamin

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Co factor

metals, iron zinc

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Enzyme optimal conditions

heat (98.6), pH

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feedback inhibition

turn off the first enzyme in a metabolic pathway

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Competitive Feedback inhibition

Active site become blocked off

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Non-competitive (Allosteric) Feedback inhibition

molecule bonds to an enzyme and changes the shape of the active site

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ATP losing a phosphate

ADP

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Chemical Equation for Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

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1 Glucose

36-38 ATP

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Stages of ATP

23 steps to inhibit combustion in cells, Heat is given off

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Molecular cars to move electrons

FADH, NADH2

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Dehydrogenations

strip hydrogen of protons and electrons

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Electron Carriers

Soluble, membrane-bound

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Two ways to Make ATP

Enzymes, Electron Transport

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Substrate Level Phosphorylation

Adding a phosphate, Ancient, used in Glycolysis

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oxidative phosphorylation

need oxygen to add phosphate

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Simple organisms

re-attach phosphate with an enzyme

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4 Steps of Cell respiration

Glycolysis, Pyruvate Oxidation to Acetyl CO-a, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport

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Glycolysis (fermentation)

Occurs in cytoplasm 12 Steps No oxygen Main products - 2 ATP, 2 Pyruvates (3 Carbons), 2 NADH Yeast, Human Muscle cells

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Pyruvate Oxidation to Acetyl Co-a

Occurs in the double membrane of the mitochondria Produces 2 Acetyle CO-a, 2 NADH, 2 CO2

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Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)

Occurs in the Matrix Turns twice for 1 Molecule of glucose Makes carries - 8 NADH, 2 FADH Acetyle Co-a -> Oxaloacetate Makes 2 ATP, 4 CO2 9 Reactions

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Electron Transport (Chemiosmosis)

Occurs in Cristae ATP synthesis pump NADH and FADH can carry 2 electrons Concentration gradient of H+ 32-34 ATP

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Aerobic respiration

Controlled by feedback inhibition Phosphofructokinase controls glycolysis

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Deamination of Proteins

breaking into amino acids

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Beta oxidation of Fats

fats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol

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Anaerobic respiration

Some living organism thrive NO Oxygen present Use inorganic molecules such as sulfur, nitrate, C02 or metals to transpire Archaea

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Fermentation in Yeast

2 ATP, 2 Pyruvate (3Carbon), 2 NADH (enzymes) Uses ATP Reuse NADH Breaks Pyruvate into CO2 and Ethanol

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Fermentation in Human Muscle Cells

2 ATP, 2 Pyruvate (3Carbon), 2 NADH (enzymes) Uses ATP Reuses NADH Breaks Pyruvate into Lactic acid

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Photosynthesis

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Endergonic Takes place in chloroplast

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Light Dependent Reaction

Splitting water and harvesting hydrogens Occurs in thylakoid Light energy is captured by chlorophyll Electrons come from H20 Endergonic

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Calvin Cycle (Light Independent Reaction)

ATP is used to dismantle CO2 and put carbon into glucose Occurs in Stroma 6x = 1 Molecule of Glucose Ribisco

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Jan Baptista van Helmont (1577-1644)

Where do plants get nutrients, Tree experiment

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Joseph Priestly (1733-1804)

There is something in the air, mouse and candle experiment

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Jan Ingenhouz (1730-1799)

Plants produce oxygen, Discoverer of photosynthesis

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Jean Senebier (1742-1809)

Plants need CO2

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Julius Mayer (1830-1895)

Plants transform energy

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Julius von Sachs (1832-1897)

Starch is produced by light

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FF Blackman (1866-1947)

Photosynthesis is a multistep process and one requires light

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Cornelius Van niel (1897-1985)

Photosynthesis is a light dependent redox reaction

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Melvin Calvin (1911-1997)

Traces the chemical path that carbon follow to form Glucose

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Where does photosynthesis take place?

Leaves

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Mesophyll

Chloroplasts located

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Stomata

allows gases to diffuse in and out, controlled by guard cells

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Grana

A stack of thylakoids

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Stroma

Location of synthesis reaction

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Photons

highly energized packets of light, kinetic light energy

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Electromagnetic Spectrum

Differentiates light based on its wavelength Visible range is the wavelength we can see Radiowaves, Infrared, UV light, Xrays, Gamma Rays

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Plant Pigments

Capture the light energy

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Chlorophyll A

main pigment to absorb light

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Chlorophyll B

helps chlorophyll A

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Carotenoids

Yellow and Orange

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Anti oxidants

Beta Carotenes and other carotenoids neutralize free radicals

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B Carotene

Vitamin A precursor

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Why do leaves change color

Heat wave, Shorter Days

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Photosystem 1 & 2

Enzymes with Antenna that Captures light, chlorophyll is located here

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Rubisco

enzyme that bonds to CO2 in photosynthesis

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G3P (PGAL)

sugar, product of calvin cycle

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