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includes all of the resources required for survival, growth, and reproduction
harms both participants. occurs when two or more species try to obtain the same limited resource.
both species benefit, relationship improves the fitness of both partners. +/+
benefits one and does not affect the other, one species benefits, but the other is not significantly affected. +/o
relationships occur when two species share a close (and often lifelong) relationship in which one typically lives in or on the other.
competitive exclusion principle
the species that acquires more of the resources will eventually "win," while the less successful species will die out.
the division of resources to avoid interspecific competition for limited resources in an ecosystem
harms onr and benifits another, one species benefits at the expense of another +/-
animals that kill and eat other animals
An organism that is killed and eaten by another organism
two species evolve together
is the total number of species occupying a habitat
describes the proportion of a community that each species occupies.
gradual change in a community's species composition
occurs in an area where no community previously existed (such as following a volcanic eruption).
the first to colonize the new area.
occurs when a community is disturbed but not destroyed.
diversity and composition are stable
describes its position in the food chain. Dictates organisms for energy aqured from food.
use energy from an inorganic source (such as sunlight) to produce organic molecules.
obtain energy from eating producers or other consumers
dead tissue and organic wastes such as feces.
return the inorganic nutrients in detritus to the environment
realistic depiction of the feeding relationships in a community
central to maintaining diversity in a community.
energy trapped by producers and stored as food molecules that consumers can eat.
a chemical becomes most concentrated in organisms at the highest trophic levels
microbes convert N_2 to a source that cycles through producers and consumers
bacteria convert NH4 and NO3 back to N2 and release it to the atmosphere
excessive nutrients ultimately lead to oxygen-poor water that cannot sustain much life