BSC 111: Chapter 20, 21, 23, 25 Definitions and Key Concepts

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Virus

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Virus

noncellular parasitic agent consisting of outer capsid and innercore of nucleic acid

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Obligate Intracellular Pathogens

replicate using the metabolic machinery of host cells

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Outer layer of a virus

protein capsid contains genetic material that will attach to a host cell through tissue specificity, lock and key fit, or target immune response

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Outer Membranous envelope

outer layer of a virus is derived from the host cell's plasma membrane

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Attachment Step(Lytic Cycle )

virus gains based on proteins on a cell and virus (must match) within the cells of specific living Organisms -> determined by the structure of proteins in the naked capsid in the spikes of an enveloped virus

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Penetration step (Lytic Cycle)

host cell engulfs virus or injects genome into cell

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biosynthesis step (lytic cycle)

viral component synthesized using host cell

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Released step(Lytic Cycle)

new viruses exit the host cell through lysis or budding to infect new host cells

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Lysogenic Cycle

After penetration, bacterial cell is integrated into bacterial DNA and is passed on when bacteria reproduce. Causes the bacteria to go dormant and will be activited with the chnages in the enviroment

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lytic cycle starts immediately

in animal viruses reproduction:

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Seasonal FLu (RNA Virus)

-Influenza A-virus: host changes, caused epidhous -Influenza B and C: only in humans Rapid mutation rate

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HIV/AIDS

Retrovirus: Animal viruses with an RNA genome that is converted into DNA within the host cell by reverse transcriptase ->AIDS ->Human Immuno Deficiency

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Emerging Viruses

Outbreak of previously unknown disease or known disease that increase in occurrence -Mutated from existing RNA -Expanded host range -Antigenic shift -vector born

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Viral Diseases in Plants

-Can occur due to varroids

10,000 known viruses

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Viroids

RNA with no capsid

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Prions

misfolded proteins that can transmit their misfolded shape onto variants of the same protein

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Fatal Neurovegetative Brain Disease

TSEs(transmissible spongiform encephalopathies) caused by prions -Scrapie -Chronic Waste Disease -Kuru -Mad Cow Disease

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Prokaryotes

single celled, lacks membrane bound nucleus and the membranous organelles typical of eukaryotes -> Evolved 3.5 BYA

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Cell Wall

Provides support and shapes to a prokaryote cell

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Capsule(Slime Layer)

helps parasitic bacteria protect itself from host cell defenses

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Fimbriac

hairlike bristles that allow adhesion to surfaces

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Flagellum

rotating filament that propels the cell

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Conjunction Pilus

elongated, hollow appendage used to transfer DNA to other cells

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Ribosome

site of protein synthesis (smaller than eukaryotes)

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Nucleoid

single chromosome containing a few thousand genes that codes proteins

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Plasmids

accessory rings that contain genes for antibiotic resistance

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Binary Fission

Prokaryote reproduction where the cell splits and genetically identical sister cells -allows rapid population growth because every individual our reproduce

  • disadvantage: less genetic variation

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transformation

Source of genetic variation where prokaryotes can absorb and express genetic material from environment

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transduction

source of genetic variation where the process of transferring genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage

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conjugation

source of genetic variation where genetic material transmitted by plasmids -Cells connect by conjugation pilus -donor cell passes DNA to recipient in the form of a plasmid

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Peptidoglycan

Composition of Domain bacterial cell walls

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gram-negative

indicates that a bacteria has a thin peptidoglycan wall and a extra LPS membrane layer

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Spirilla

Spiral

<p>Spiral</p>
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Bacillus

rod shaped

<p>rod shaped</p>
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coccus

circle

<p>circle</p>
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Strepto

chain

<p>chain</p>
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Stapho

clump

<p>clump</p>
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autotrophic

of or relating to organisms that can make complex organic nutritive compounds from simple inorganic sources by photosynthesis

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heterotrophic

requiring organic compounds of carbon and nitrogen for nourishment

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Bacterial Photoautotrophs

photosynthetic bacteria

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Facultative anaerobes

bacteria is able to growing either the presence of absence of gaseous oxygen

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Chemoautotrophs

bacteria that carry out chemosynthesis -oxidize compounds to obtain the necessary energy to reproduce CO2 to an organic compound

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Chemoheterotrophic

bacteria that obtain carbon and energy in the form of organic nutrients produced by other living things

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Symbiotic relationship

close relationship between two different species

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Mutualistic Symbiosis

both species benefit from the association

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Parasitic Symbiosis

one species benefit, the other is harmed

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Commensalism symbiosis

one species benefits whereas the other is unaffeced

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Endospores

formed by pathogens within a cell wall a copy of chromosome and cytoplasm shriveled into a dormant state, are encased by a heavy coat

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Antibiotics

treatment that targets prokaryotes cell wall production in humans

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cyanobacteria

Gram-negative bacteria that photosynthesize-> produces oxygen Contains chlorophyll Common in fresh and marine waters, soil, and on moist surfaces Form lichens that can grow on rocks

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Roles of Bacteria

Producers: Responsible for the oxygen revolution An important part of marine phytoplankton (food and oxygen production)

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Domain Archaea

bacterial cells with pseudopeptidoglycan cell walls Extremophiles: live in conditions of acidity, pressure, temp, salinity that would kill most other cells

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Extreme Halophiles

archaea that live in extreme salt conditions

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extreme thermoacidophiles

archaea that thrive in hot acidic environment

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Methagenes

archaea that generate methane -> exist in swamps and animal intestinal tracts

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Protists

eukaryotes that are not animals, fungi, or plants Single-celled, but some exist as colonies of cells or are multicellular

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Endosymbiotic theory

proposes that eukaryotic cells acquired mitochondria and plastics(including chloroplasts) by engulfing a free-living bacterium that developed a symbiotic relationship within the host cell -Mitochondria derived first from the endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium

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mitosis

protists will reproduce asexually by

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sexually

protists reproduce how when environmental conditions are unfit

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giardia

protist parasite causing serious disease

<p>protist parasite causing serious disease</p>
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dinoflagellate

Single celled phototrophs important component phytoplankton Cellulose plates surround two flagella Causes Algae blooms: population explosion cause tides -water turns red or brown due to pigments

<p>Single celled phototrophs important component phytoplankton Cellulose plates surround two flagella Causes Algae blooms: population explosion cause tides -water turns red or brown due to pigments</p>
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plasmodium

protist that causes malaria performs antigen switching

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inside the insect vector

the sexual stage of plasmodium occurs

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in human blood cells

the asexual stage of plasmodium occurs

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Diatoms

A type of algae Single-celled phototrophs Part of phytoplankton as a source of oxygen and food in aquatic ecosystems

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Diamtaxous earth

fossilized diatoms used in abrasives

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brown algae

true algae -Multicellular phototrophic -Kelp -Homoplastic with plants due to convergent evolution

<p>true algae -Multicellular phototrophic -Kelp -Homoplastic with plants due to convergent evolution</p>
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oomycetes

fungus like protists water molds with a filamentous body, chitin cell walls instead of cellulose

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Entamoebas

-parasite Used pseudopods to ingest cells-> uses a temporary arm like projection of a cell to move organisms Acquired through contained water and soil Causes amoebic dysentery

<p>-parasite Used pseudopods to ingest cells-&gt; uses a temporary arm like projection of a cell to move organisms Acquired through contained water and soil Causes amoebic dysentery</p>
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Slime molds

Important decomposer of dead plant material, fungi, and bacterial Reduce spores but homoplasy with fungi is due to convergent evolution Amoeboid movement using cytoplasmic streaming

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red algae

Multicellular photoautotrophs (seaweed) Red and blue accessory pigments in addition to photosynthetic chlorophyll Pigments allow for us of the wavelength of light present in deep water

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green algae

algae Phototrophs Most are multicellular, but some are unicellular Contain chlorophyll, scratch, and a cell wall with cellulose Charophytes: first closet relatives to modern land plants

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Algae

photosynthetic organisms in freshwater habitats that re most closely related to land plants Transition between protist and landplants

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Aquatic

the vast majority of green algae are

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green plants (virdiplantae)

green algae + land plants

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-water cuticle -stromata -Vascularity

Land Plant adaptions to water loss

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Stromata

pores in land plants that open and close to regular water and gas exchange

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vascular tissue

tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plants

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tracheid

long tubular cell peculiar to xylem, conduct water upward from roots

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Flavonoids

An adaption land plants made through pigments that absorb UV rays

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Dominate diploid generation

Shift to this minimizes the effect of genetic mutation in plants due to UV rays by having two copies of the same gene

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Haplodiplontic life cycle

multicellular haploid and diploid life stages

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alternation of generations

a life cycle that alternates between two distinct multicellular haploid and diploid stages

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Haploid (n)

cell condition in which only one of each type of chromosome is present,

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