Sensation

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1

Light

Energy -> waves -wavelengths - distance of peaks

<p>Energy -&gt; waves -wavelengths - distance of peaks</p>
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2

Color

-longest to shortest -ROYGBIV (red longest / violet short)

<p>-longest to shortest -ROYGBIV (red longest / violet short)</p>
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3

cornea

protects the outer layer of the eye

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4

pupil

hole in the eye that absorbs light

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5

iris

makes the pupil dilate and shrink

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6

lens

contract / expand focus on one thing

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7

fovea

cones

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8

retina

(film of camera) vision cells and the light/photo receptors; project from the brain -eye concentration : "you are my phobia, everyone else is in my retina." (inner layer) (opposite of cornea)

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9

optic nerve

retina to brain

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10

Blind Spot

cannot see anything (Brain knows/ fills in side of sight); no retina

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11

visual acuity

sharpness of vision (people with glasses don't have good acuity)

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12

Photo receptors

receive the light information -transductions - The conversion of the extersion stimuli into neural impulses -rods-cones

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13

rods

outlines and shapes

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14

cones

color - vision; color blindness

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15

Trichromatic Theory(Young-Helmholtz)

3 types of cones pick up blue, red, and green

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16

opponent process theory

2 sets of opposing colors: blue and yellow; red and green

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17

air molecules

what you hear

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18

Sound

air molecules

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19

Pitch

higher/low frequency

<p>higher/low frequency</p>
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20

loudness

higher wave

<p>higher wave</p>
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21

outer ear

part you can see -- Pinna

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22

auditory canal

funnel sound wave

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23

hammer

malleus - a small bone in the middle ear which transmits vibrations of the eardrum to the incus.

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24

anvil

incus - a small anvil-shaped bone in the middle ear, transmitting vibrations between the malleus and stapes.

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25

stirrup

stapes - a small stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear, transmitting vibrations from the incus to the inner ear.

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26

what does the hammer, anvil, and stirrup have in common?

all vibrate and are bones in the ear

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27

oval window

movement of fluid within the cochlea and activation of receptors for hearing.

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28

semicircular canals

the fluid in the ear; upright; dizzy -> fluid still moving

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29

cochlea

sense of hearing and participates in the process of auditory transduction

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30

transduction

ear converts sound waves into electric impulses and sends them to the brain so we can interpret them as sound.

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31

place theory

reading location of the cilia; low, medium, high

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32

frequency theory

all cilia vibrating at same time but with different speed per pitch

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33

deafness

conductive and sensorineural

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34

conductive

hearing aides

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35

sensorineural

problem with nerves in the ear

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36

olfactory

has to do with smell

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37

chemical-odorants

taste / smell

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38

adaptable

-adapt to environment through evolutionary perspective. -get used to it (filter smell out) (nose blind)

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39

taste

sent can change taste of food

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40

temperature

smell stronger -> molecules move fast

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41

nose hairs

receptors can be regenerated

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42

memory

connect directly to limbic system (amygdala and hippocampus) and thalamus

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43

pheromones

smell chemicals released -covid in brain -"dogs and bees smell fear"

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44

gustation

has to do with taste

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45

5 different tastes

sweet, sour, bitter, saltiness, umami

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46

umami

mushrooms and meat

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47

super tasters

more flavor sensitive -bitter foods/sour -coffee -grapefruit -chili peppers

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48

vestibular

balance

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49

kinesthetic

body position/where limbs are/locate

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50

body senses

vestibular and kinesthetic

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51

perception

organizing and making sense of sensory information

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52

Perceptual processing

top-down processing (concept driven) -perceptual set -priming

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53

top-down processing

the way you perceive

<p>the way you perceive</p>
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54

perceptual set

mental filing cabinet for sense

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55

priming

perceive differently based on current state of mind

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56

bottom up (data driven)

take data and place together -monocular depth cues

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57

thresholds

amount/limit (something that needs to be passed) -absolute threshold -difference threshold (JND)

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58

absolute threshold

minimal amount of stimuli needed to detect something -signal detectiond

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59

signal detection

mental/emotional state can effect threshold -"creepy sound in house"

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60

difference threshold (JND)

how much stimuli is needed to detect the difference between stimuli -Weber's Law -"how much turning up the temperature to notice"

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61

parallel processing

take in multiple types of sensory information at the same time

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62

selective attention

brain will filter out information that is not important (clothes on skin)

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63

cocktail party effect

listen to other conversation (hear your name)

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64

sensory adaption

getting used to sensory stimuli and brain filtering out unchanging senses

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65

change blindness

inability to notice change in things.

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66

closure

tendency to fill gaps between lines.

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67

figure ground perception

the ability to differentiate an object from its background

<p>the ability to differentiate an object from its background</p>
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68

proximity

grouping close objects together

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69

simulartity

grouping similar looking items

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70

continuity

continued lines grouped

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71

orientation

contentedness

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72

depth perception

ability to tell how far/close something is

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73

visual cliff

test babies depth perception to cross over

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74

relative size

monocular cues; close:big - far:small

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75

relative height

monocular cues; high:far - low:close

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76

interposition

monocular cues; things that are behind are therefore further away

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77

relative clarity

monocular cues; clear:closer - foggy:far

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78

texture gradient

monocular cues; smooth:far - rough:close

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79

linear perspective

monocular cues; converge together to meet at one point

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80

motion paralax

monocular cues; back:slow - close:fast

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81

binocular cues

pencil test - two pencils show retinal disparity - each retina overlays and creates depth (3-D movie) convergence - closer your eyes are, it will aim sharply

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82

Stroboscopic movement

one object layer over multiple shots

<p>one object layer over multiple shots</p>
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83

phi phenomenon

perception of motion in lights

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84

size constancy

the same size but different positions

<p>the same size but different positions</p>
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85

ponzo allusion

judges an object's size based on its background.

<p>judges an object&apos;s size based on its background.</p>
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86

muller-lyer illusion

makes lines of the same length appear to be different.

<p>makes lines of the same length appear to be different.</p>
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87

shape constancy

the image is different but imagine it the same

<p>the image is different but imagine it the same</p>
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88

brightness and color constancy

if the color is under a shadow, we think of it still the same color

<p>if the color is under a shadow, we think of it still the same color</p>
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89

violethumans experience the shortest visible electromagnetic waves as what?

humans experience the shortest visible electromagnetic waves as what?

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90

transduction

what is the conversion of stimulus energies into neural impulses called

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91

subliminal

perceived by or affecting someone's mind without their being aware of it.

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92

gate - control

pain signals can be sent up to the brain to be processed to accentuate the possible perceived pain, or attenuate it at the spinal cord itself.

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93

signal detection

method of differentiating a person's ability to discriminate the presence and absence of a stimulus

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94

feature detectors

individual neurons—or groups of neurons—in the brain which code for perceptually significant stimuli.

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95

context effects

cognitive psychology that describes the influence of environmental factors on one's perception of a stimulus.

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96

gestalt

"the whole exceeds the sum of it's parts"

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97

color constancy

a red rose looks equally as red when wearing sunglasses vs when not, why is that?

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