Nutrition exam 2

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organization of human body (6)

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organization of human body (6)

chemical-cell-tissue-organ-organ system-organism

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atom

smallest portion element

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atom nucleus contains (2)

proton, neutrons

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atom electrons sit in ... and are stable at what number?

valence shell, stable at 8 e-

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molecule

2+ atoms joined by chem. properties

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comple molecule

Large molecules made up of subunits

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in molecular formula the subscript means...

of atoms

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in molecular formula the number means...

of molecules

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element def., what element most common body?

A pure substance made up of only one type of atom, oxygen (65%)

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cation

net + charge = Loss e-

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anion

net - charge = Gain e

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redox rxn (reduction, oxidation) (OIL-RIG)

Transfer of electrons= Gives e = oxidized Receives e = reduced OIL = oxidation is loss RIG = reduction is gain

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free radicals

Molecules with unpaired electrons = unstable Initiates cascade of disturbances = steals e from molecules if not stopped = oxidative stress (aging, heart disease, cancer, etc)

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antioxidants

Protective effect = can interrupt the free radical cascade Stop free radicals damage

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ionic bonds

cation and anion attract (stolen e-) NaCl

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covalent bonds

share e- H2O

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types covalent bonds (2)

polar = unequal sharing --> hydrophilic non-polar = equal sharing --> hydrophobic

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hydrogen bonds

weak bonds

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condensation rxn

make, releases H2O

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hydrolysis run

break, added H20

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pH acid

0-7

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pH neutral

7

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pH bases (alkaline)

7-14

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what does buffer do? found where?

resist pH change blood, kidneys, lungs

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acidosis

mild headache, loss appetite starvation, diabetes

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alkalosis

excess vomiting overuse laxatives hyperventilating

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diabetic ketoacidosis

No glucose in cells → fat breakdown for energy → ketone production → cause acidic blood

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homeostasis

balance, controlled nervous and endocrine sys.

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what is hormone

chemical messenger, stimulate response

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cell membrane

Provides protective boundary between intra and extracellular environments

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lysosome

Contains digestive enzymes that break down protein, lipids, nucleic acids Removes and recycles waste

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nucleus

Contains DNA which provides coded instructions for protein syn.

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cytoplasm

Gel-like substance inside cell that contains organelles proteins, electrolytes, and other molecules

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smooth ER

Involves lipid synthesis No ribosomes = no protein synthesis

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rough ER

Ribosomes = builds process proteins

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Golgi apparatus

Membrane sacs that process and package proteins

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mitochondria

Produces most energy (atp) of cell

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passive transport mechanisms (3)

simple diffusion = high to low conc. faccilitated diffusion = transport protein high to low osmosis = water flow, low solute conc - high solute conc.

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active transport mechanisms (3)

carrier mediated active transport = transport protein low to high conc. exocytosis = vesicle out of cell endocytosis = vesicle into cell

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primary tissue types (4)

epithelial, connective, neural, muscle

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epithelial tissue

Covers and lines body, organs, cavities

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connective tissue

Provides structure to body b binding and anchoring body parts

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neural tissue

Role in communicating by receiving and responding to stimuli

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muscle tissue

Contracts and shortens when stimulates

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organ level

Group of tissues that combine to carry out coordinated functions

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digestive system consists of.. (2)

GI organs and accessory organs

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basic process digestion (4)

ingestion, digestion, absorption, excretion

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GI organs (5)

mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

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mouth

Chews,mixes food with saliva and beguin mechanical digestion

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esophagus

carries food from mouth to stomach

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stomach

Adds acids, enzymes, and gastric juice while grinding it into a semi liquid

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small intestine

Breaks down nutrients using enzymes produced by sm intestine and pancreas, nutrients absorbed into blood and lymph

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large intestine

Absorbs water and some minerals and vitamins

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tissue layers GI tract

serosa, muscularis, submucosa (contains circulatory and lymph vessels), mucosa, lumen

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accessory organs (4)

salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

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sphincter between esophagus and stomach

esophageal sphincter

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what do sphincters do

allows no back flow

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time for food pass from out to anus

24-72 hours

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in mouth food is ..

food

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in esophagus food is...

bolus

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in stomach and small intestine food is...

chyme

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in large intestine food is...

waste

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mechanical digestion occurs how (3)

mastication, peristalsis, segmentation

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chemical digestion involves ...

enzymes

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protein enzyme

promises/ peptidases

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carbohydrate enzyme

amylases

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fat enzyme

lipases

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enzyme characteristics (5)

bind, break, participate, catalysts, create

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cephalic phase

early signaling prepares GI tract for digestion

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digestion beings...

mechanical - mouth chemical - saliva (some digestion carbs)

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GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)

improper sphincter closure

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major site mechanical digestion, some chem digestion w/ stomach acid

stomach

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in stomach bolus breaks to...

chyme

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sphincter btwn stomach and small intestine

pyloric sphincter

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Why is hydrochloric acid (HCl) important during digestion & absorption?

Kills harmful pathogens consumed Helps to activate digestive enzymes Helps to digest dietary protein

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pH stomac acid

2-3

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peptid ulcers caused by...

bacteria (H. pyloric infection), decreases mucus which allows stomach acid to eat away at stomach

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small intestine movement (2)

peristalsis, segmentation

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primary site for digestion and absorption

small intestine

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pancreas

Secretes Bicarbonate which neutralizes pH of stomach acid Also release enzymes for lipid, protein,and carbohydrate breakdown

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liver

produces bile (crucial for digestion/absorption lipids)

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galbladder

stores bile, releases to small intestine

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purpose of microvilli and villi

increase surface area

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celica disease

autoimmune disease, villi damaged = poor nutrient absorption

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circulatory system delivers what nutrients(4)

carbohydrates, amino acids, minerals, water-soluble vitamins

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lymphatic system delivers what nutrients(4)

most fats, some vitamins

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function large intestine

Absorb Folate, biotin, and short chain fatty acids Water absorption mostly absorbed here

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gut microbiome

prebiotics feed probiotics

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inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

chronic autoimmune disease, inflammation which permanently harms intestine ex. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease

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irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

functional disorder, not lead to serious disease, not cause inflammation, effects 20% US adults

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small intestine absorbs majority of ...

water

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main source energy body

carbohydrates

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sources carbs (4)

starches, dairy, fruit, candy etc

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simple carbohydrates (2)

monosaccharides, disaccharides

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monosaccharides (3)

glucose (fruits and veg. ), fructose (fruits and veg.), galactose (milk)

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disaccharides (3), and made by what reaction

condensation rxn forms glycosidic bond, lactose (glucose + galactose), sucrose (glucose + fructose), maltose (glucose + glucose)

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complex carbohydrates

oligosaccharides (3-10 saccharides), polysaccharides (starch and glycogen)

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starch come from

major storage carb in plants,

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types of starch (2)

amylose = straight chain polymer amylopectin = branches(digested quicker)

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glycogen comes from...

storage form carbs in animals (liver and muscle)

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