PSYC101 Exam "4"

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What are the four classes of disorders?

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This is just final portion of the semester. Use all four exam sets for the final exam review.

46 Terms

1

What are the four classes of disorders?

Personality, Anxiety, Mood, and Schizophrenia.

Think: PAMS

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2

What are the characteristics of personality disorders?

List some of the major personality-related disorders.

Behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

Antisocial personality disorder (psychopathy), histrionic, narcissistic, and borderline personality disorder (BPD).

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3

What is antisocial personality disorder?

It is a personality-related disorder where a person has a lack of conscience. They may be ruthless, aggressive, a con-artist, or very charming.

Signs in children: impulsive, uninhibited, unconcerned with social rewards, or have low anxiety.

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4

What are the characteristics of anxiety disorders?

List some of the major anxiety-related disorders.

Distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

Generalized anxiety disorder, Panic disorder, Phobias, and Obsessive-Compulsive disorder.

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5

What is generalized anxiety disorder?

It is an anxiety-related disorder where a person is continually tense and uneasy for no apparent reason.

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6

What is panic disorder?

It is an anxiety-related disorder where a person experiences sudden, intense dread.

Like Tony Soprano (<-- it was in the slides??)

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7

What are phobias?

It is an anxiety-related disorder where a person has an irrational avoidance of a specific object or situation.

Examples: snakes, heights, crowds.

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8

What is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)?

It is an anxiety-related disorder where a person has unwanted, repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).

Compulsions reduce anxiety caused by obsessions.

Example: Person repeatedly checks that oven is off due to a fear that their oven was left on and it will burn the house down. Repeatedly checking eases this obsession.

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9

How do anxiety disorders develop?

From learning perspectives:

  • Fear conditioning

  • Observational learning

  • Reinforcement

  • Stimulus generalization

Think: FORS

From biological perspectives:

  • Physiology: unusually high frontal lobe activity

  • Evolution: we are scared of what our ancestors were scared of

  • Genes

Think: PEG

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10

What is a characteristic of mood disorders?

List some of the major mood-related disorders.

Emotional extremes.

Depression, manic episodes, and bipolar disorder.

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11

What is depression (the disorder)?

It is a mood-related disorder where a person experiences feelings of worthlessness, decreased pleasure and interest, and depressed mood.

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12

What are manic episodes?

It is a mood-related disorder where a person experiences a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.

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13

What is bipolar disorder (BPD)?

It is a mood-related disorder where a person experiences alternations between depression and mania.

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14

How do mood disorders develop?

From biological perspectives:

  1. Genetics

  2. The brain 2a. low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine 2b. less active brains 2c. hippocampus

From socio-cognitive perspectives:

  • Outlook on life can influence your mood

  • Vicious cycle: negative thoughts create negative moods; negative moods create negative thoughts

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15

What are the characteristics of schizophrenia?

Disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.

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16

What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

Hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, incoherence, disassociated thoughts, and illogicity.

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17

What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

A toneless voice, expressionless face, rigid posture, blunted, apathy, and social withdrawal.

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18

What are the causes of schizophrenia?

From brain abnormalities:

  • dopamine overactivity

  • brain anatomy (low frontal lobe activity, thalamus, shrunken brain tissue)

  • maternal virus during pregnancy

From genetics

  • identical twins have a 50% chance of being schizophrenic if their twin is

From psychological factors: -maybe a reaction to stress?

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19

What is the DMS-IV?

What 3 criterion does it use to diagnose a mental disorder.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition)

  1. Clinically significant dysfunction

  2. Internal source

  3. Involuntary manifestation

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20

What are some clinical diagnostic tools?

  1. Interview (client family & friends)

  2. History (family & medical)

  3. Direct observation

  4. IQ Tests (WAIS)

  5. Personality tests (MMPI, Big Five)

  6. Projective tests (Rorschach, DAPT)

  7. Brain Imaging (CAT, PET, MRI)

  8. DSM-IV

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21

What are the two types of therapy?

Biomedical and psychological

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22

What are some examples of biomedical therapies?

  1. Drug therapies

  2. Other 2a. Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy (ECT) - severe depression 2b. Deep brain stimulation - invasive 2c. Vagus nerve stimulation - epilepsy, depression 2d. Transcranial magnetic stimulation - diagnosis of motor conditions, treatment of neuropathic pain, depression

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23

What are the types of drug therapies?

Antipsychotics, anti-anxiety, antidepressants, and lithium.

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24

What are antipsychotics? What are they used to treat?

They are used to treat schizophrenia through a blockade of dopamine receptors.

Traditional (typical) - it only relieves positive symptoms through antagonism of dopamine (subtype 2) receptors

Examples: chlorpromazine, haloperidol

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25

What are atypical antipsycholtics?

They reduce both positive and negative symptoms without the motor side effects.

  • Antagonism of dopamine and serotonin

  • Examples: clozapine, olanzapine, aripirazole

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26

What are antianxiety drugs?

They reduce anxiety. They're most helpful for generalized anxiety disorder, but really shouldn't be used.

Example: Benzodiazepines - Valium, Xanax, Ativan

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27

What are antidepressants?

SSRI's (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)

  • Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft

  • Effect serotonin only

  • most common prescribed class

  • helpful for some depression and anxiety

Prozac (fluoxetine)

  • 5-HT syndrome (can't mix with other antidepressants)

  • Sexual dysfunction

  • Pregnancy and breast feeding?

  • Increased risk of suicide in children

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28

What are the types of psychological therapies?

Behavior therapies (classical/operant), cognitive therapies, cognitive-behavioral therapies, humanistic therapies, psychoanalysis, psychodynamic, eclectic, and group & family therapy.

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29

What is behavior therapy?

Apply learning principles to eliminate unwanted behaviors. Does not deal with the underlying problem.

Classical conditioning - anxiety disorders

  • systematic desensitization (exposure therapy)

  • aversive conditioning (replaces positive resp. with negative resp.)

Operant conditioning

  • token economy (rewards for desires behaviors)

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30

What is cognitive therapy?

It teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting.

Negative thinking patterns influence your mental health. (Albert Ellis - Rational emotive therapy)

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31

What is Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT)?

Changes self-defeating thinking and behavior. Gives "homework".

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32

What is humanistic therapy?

It focuses on self-fulfillment.

The past is not important; the conscious; responsibility for one's feelings; promotes growth.

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33

What is psychoanalysis?

Freud-based thinking. Brings repressed childhood feelings into conscious awareness.

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34

What is psychodynamic therapy?

Understanding of current symptoms by exploring one's childhood.

Face-to-face, fewer sessions, deemphasizes sexual conflict

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35

What is Carl Rogers' Client-Centered Therapy?

Non-directive.

  1. genuineness, acceptance, and empathy

  2. Active-listening

  3. Ideal vs actual selves

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36

What is prejudice?

Unjustifiable and usually negative attitude towards a group

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37

What are the different roots of prejudice?

Social roots and cognitive roots.

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38

What are the social roots of prejudice?

  1. Social inequity

  2. In-group (us) and Out-group (Them)

  • ingroup bias

  1. Scapegoating - blaming is an outlet for anger (Hitler)

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39

What are the cognitive roots of prejudice?

Stereotypes come from how we cognitively simplify the world.

  1. Categorization - overestimate the similarity of people within different groups from our own

  2. Vivid cases - easily remembered and can bias judgements

  3. Just-World Phenomenon - people get what they deserve

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40

What is the fundamental attribution error?

The tendency when analyzing another's behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.

Example: chastizing a "lazy employee" for being late to a meeting and then proceeding to make an excuse for being late yourself that same day

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41

When will attitudes guide behaviors?

  1. Outside influences are minimal

  2. The attitude is specifically relevant to the behavior

  3. We are keenly aware of our attitudes

  • ex: Deiner mirror studies (people less likely to cheat, steal, etc when they see their reflection)

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42

When do our behaviors guide our attitudes?

  1. Foot-in-the-door phenomenon: tendency for people who agree to a small action to comply later with a larger one

  2. Role playing - Zimbardo's prison experiment

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43

What is cognitive dissonance theory?

We act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent.

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44

What is an example of conformity (regarding social influence)?

Asch line measuring experiments.

Willingness to conform to the group.

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45

What is an example of obedience (regarding social influence)?

Milgram's shock experiments.

63% delivered highest 450 volts. 65% delivered highest shock with learner reported "heart problems" 93% delivered highest shock when someone else pushed button

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46

What are some examples of group influence?

  1. Social facilitation - improved performance of tasks in front of others

  2. Social loafing - people in a group tend to exert less effort (think tug-of-war example)

  3. De-individuation - Loss of self-awareness and self restraint when anonymity is involved (woman w/ hoods, Zimbardo)

  4. Group polarization - enhancement of a group's attitude through discussion within the group

  5. Groupthink - the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives (ex: Challenger explosion)

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