Biotechnology and DNA Tech Vocab Quiz

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Biotechnology

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The quiz is on 2/17/23

48 Terms

1

Biotechnology

The manipulation of living organisms or their components to achieve specific practical goals.

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2

Genetic Engineering

Alteration of genomes for medical or industrial processes.

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3

GMO

An organism that has been produced through genetic engineering.

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4

DNA Fingerprinting

Use of restriction enzymes to cut DNA into unique sequences that can be used to compare individuals with the use of electrophoresis.

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5

DNA Extraction

The process of obtaining DNA from a living organism for analysis.

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6

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Method used to amplify the amount of DNA.

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7

Gel electrophoresis

Method in which DNA fragments are separated by size by placing samples in a gelatinous material exposed to electric current.

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8

Restriction enzyme

An enzyme that cuts double stranded DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence.

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9

The International Consortium

Labs in different countries that are supported by public funds.

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10

Celera Genomics

A private company

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11

Genetic Map

Type of map that shows location of genes along chromosomes.

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12

Contact Inhibition

When cells come into contact with neighboring cells, they stop dividing.

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13

Proto-oncogenes

Genes that encode for proteins that promote cell cycle and prevent apoptosis.

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14

Tumor-Suppressor Genes

Encode for proteins that inhibit the cell cycle and promote apoptosis.

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15

Carcinogens

Environmental agents that are mutagenic.

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16

Tumor Marker Tests

Blood tests for antigens or antibodies created by body to fight tumor.

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17

Genetic Tests

Test for mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes

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18

Chemotherapy

Use of chemicals that interfere with DNA synthesis to destroy cancer cells that have spread throughout the body.

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19

Radiation Therapy

Powerful rays administered to specific areas to destory cells.

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20

Mutation

Permanent genetic change.

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21

Gene Mutation

Random change in the sequences of bases within a gene.

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22

Chromosomal Mutation

Change in chromosome structure that can be detected microscopically.

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23

Frameshift Mutation

A type of mutation that occurs when one or more nucleotides are inserted or deleted from DNA.

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24

Point Mutation

A type of mutation that occurs when one nucleotide is substituted for another.

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25

Cloning

Production of identical copies of a gene or organism through asexual means.

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26

Vector

A means of transferring something into an organism.

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27

Plasmid

Small accessory ring of DNA from bacterium that is not a part of the bacterium chromosome and is capable of replicating on its own.

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28

Transgenic Organisms

Free living organism that has foreign genes in its cells.

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29

Transgenic Plants

Plants that have been engineered to secrete a toxic that kills insects and to be resistant to herbicides.

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30

Transgenic Animals

Fish, cows, pigs, rabbits, and sheep have been engineered to produce growth hormone in order to increase the size of the animals.

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31

Animal Pharming

The process of making transgenic animals to produce pharmaceuticals.

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32

Gene Therapy

Insertion of genetic material into human cells for treatment of a disorder.

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33

Ex vivo gene therapy

A type of gene therapy in which cells are removed from the patient to be treated outside the body and returned to the patient.

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34

In vivo gene therapy

A type of gene therapy in which a patient is given a foreign gene directly and this gene is incorporated into the genome within the body.

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35

Reproductive Cloning

Type of cloning in which desired end is an individual organism.

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36

Therapeutic Cloning

Type of cloning in which desired end is a specific cell type.

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37

Silent Mutation

A type of point mutation in which there is no change in the sequence of amino acids.

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38

Nonsense Mutation

A type of point mutation in which the mutation creates a stop codon.

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39

Missense Codon

A type of point mutation in which the mutation changes the amino acid.

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40

Mutagens

Environmental factors such as UV, x-rays, and chemicals which can cause mutations.

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41

Angiogenesis

A process which describes how as a tumor grows, it produces growth factors to stimulate the formation of new blood vessels to supply oxygen and nutrients to cancerous cells

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42

Cancerous Cells

Cells that invade the underlying tissue.

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43

Metastatic Tumor

Cancer cells that are motile and start tumors in new locations.

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44

Malignant Tumor

When cells of a tumor have the ability to spread away from the original site through vessels

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45

Benign Tumor

tumor that is composed of noncancerous cells that stays a single mass

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46

Stem Cells

Any cells that can divide and differentiate into more functionally specific cell types such as nerves, blood, or muscle

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47

p53

A gene that normally prevents cell division if there is damage to the DNA. If p53 mutates, the cells may continue to divide indefinitely

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48

Human Genome Project

Effort began in 1990 to construct base sequence map/genetic map of each chromosome.

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