psychology of women and gender final

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social support

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124 Terms

1

social support

a feeling of being cared for and having support and assistance from people around us, including families, friends and romantic partners

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2

informational social support

advice, suggestions, and information

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3

instrumental social support

occurs when you gain something more tangible from your family and friends-money, gifts, services

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4

emotional social support

expressions of concern, empathy, positive regard-being cared for by others

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5

tend-and-befriend coping strategy

nurturing and protecting others in times of stress and developing social networks that facilitate these patterns

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6

co-rumination

extensively discussing and self-disclosing emotional problems with another person

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7

relational aggression

an act of aggression (physical or verbal) intended to harm a person's relationship or social standing

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8

identity based bullying

directed toward people who are actual or perceived members of a devalued social group because of that group membership

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9

dating scripts

descriptions of normal behaviors and are overwhelmingly heteronormative

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10

consensually non monogamous 1) polygamy

  1. polyamorous

  1. one husband with many wives

  2. each partner may have other partners

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11

principle of least interest

the person who wants a relationship less has greater power within that relationship

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12

routine labor( low control labor)

chores that the person doing has little say over when and where it gets done

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13

intermittent labor

only labor done occasionally and has leeway as to when they need it done

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14

second shift

the double burden/ work outside the home followed by child care and housework- that many women face and few men share equitably

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15

emotional work

tasks making other people feel love and cared for

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16

relative resource theory

the person who brings more resources to the relationship gets to use those resources in order to avoid doing chores

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17

time availability

holds that the person with most available time should do a larger amount of housework

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18

gender deviance neutralization

the idea that when people act in a way that's gender atypical in one domain, they overcompensate by acting in a gender-stereotypical way in another domain

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19

the culture of romance

Idealized and unrealistic beliefs about love and romance are common and that are perpetuated through media-dating scripts

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20

stratified reproduction

Access and services based on socio-economic position. Wealthy utilizing assistive reproductive technologies to get pregnant. Poor women critiqued for having 'too many children'.

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21

voluntary childlessness

the conscious choice to remain childless

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22

motherhood mandate

strong pressures in our society to have children

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23

post abortion syndrome

the depression one sometimes has after having an abortion

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24

infertility

the inability to conceive a child

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25

Assistive Reproductive Technology (ART)

a general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy

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26

in vitro fertilization (IVF)

egg and sperm cells are combined outside the body in a laboratory dish (in vitro) to facilitate fertilization

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27

Surrogacy

An arrangement whereby a woman bears a child on behalf of another woman

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28

miscarriage

The death of an embryo or fetus in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy

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29

stillbirth

the birth of a fetus that died before, or during, the delivery

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30

baby blues

a mild postpartum mood disorder that goes away on its own

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31

post partum depression

depression that occurs after the birth of a child

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32

post partum anxiety

feelings after the birth of a child that include worry, a sense of dread, obsessive checking, difficulty sleeping, and other physical symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and headaches

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33

maternal gatekeeping

a mother's behavior that encourages or discourages a father's involvement in family matters

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34

mother blaming

When mothers are accused of causing problems in their children

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35

intensive parenting

women are supposed to live up to the ideal of, being essentially a helicopter parent

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36

attachment parenting

A caregiving approach stressing the value of prolonged breast feeding, continuous "skin to skin" contact, and other strategies designed to promote intense parent-child bonding during the early years of life.

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37

reproductive justice

many women who are less privileged have limited choices about whether or how to parent-the reproductive justice movement supports the ability of all women to be able to make informed choices about motherhood

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38

horizontal occupational gender segregation

the tendency of men and women to cluster into different professions

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39

vertical occupational gender segregation

the tendency for men to hold positions with higher status, authority, and pay than women within any given field

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40

comparable worth

the issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill

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41

motherhood wage penalty

women with children earn significantly less than childless women, even when they have comparable education, work experience, and job characteristics

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42

glass ceiling

an invisible limit on women's climb up the occupational ladder

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43

sticky floor

social forces that keep the majority of the world's women stuck in low-paid jobs

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44

"think manager-think male" bias

the idea that the traits many people associate with leadership are agentic ones that are also associated with masculinity

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45

transformational leader

a leader who is able to instill in the members of a group a sense of mission or higher purpose, thereby changing the nature of the group itself

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46

networking

A way of making and using contacts to get job information and advice-problem for women, takes place is informal settings which are unfriendly to women

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47

mentor

a person with more experience who can help and guide a person with less experience in jobs

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48

sponsor

someone who advocates for a person in order to help that individual get a job or a promotion

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49

amplification

making a comment in a meeting and another woman repeats the idea and gives credit to the original speaker

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50

glass cliff

situation that women confront in which their leadership position is precarious

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51

quid pro quo harassment

Type of sexual harassment that occurs when an employee is forced to choose between giving in to a superior's sexual demands and forfeiting an economic benefit such as a pay increase, a promotion, or continued employment.

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52

hostile work environment

occurs when the atmosphere at work is hostile, intimidating and or offensive

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53

heterosexist harrassment

expressing a negative view towards sexual minority identities

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54

work family conflict

when work interferes with family obligations or family life interferes with work

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55

role enhancement theroy

when people are engaged in multiple roles, they actually find that they have more energy and their well being is enhanced

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56

work family enrichment

two-way process in which what happens at work benefits family life and what happens in the family benefits work

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57

sandwich generation

Group of people who are caring for both their parents and their children.

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58

maternal wall

unexamined assumptions held by coworkers and superiors about how women will behave once they become mothers

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59

the pay gap

women on average are paid less than men

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60

ageism

Discrimination based on age

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61

stereotype embodiment theory

the idea that people learn age-related stereotypes at a young age, internalize them as self-stereotypes, and are subsequently influenced by them in thoughts and actions

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62

beauty work

body modifications done to conform to social norms of attractiveness-make up, shaving legs and dying hair

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63

age concealment

beauty work undertaken to hide the signs of aging and to be able to "pass" as younger than one's chronological age

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64

menopause

the permanent end of menstrual periods

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65

perimenopause

the term used to designate the transition phase between regular menstrual periods and no periods at all

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66

postmenopause

The time after menopause

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67

elderspeak

simplified speech, a high pitch and exaggerated tone similar to baby talk

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68

family caregiving

a family process that occurs in response to an illness and encompasses multiple cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal processes

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69

bereavement

state of sorrow over the death or departure of a loved one

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70

disenfranchised grief

A situation in which certain people, although they are bereaved, are prevented from mourning publicly by cultural customs or social restrictions.

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71

an empty nest

post parentalhood, when children are all grown and no longer live at home

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72

role strain relief hypothesis

the idea that parents, especially mothers, have increased well-being after children leave home because of a decrease in daily demands, time constraints, and work-family conflicts

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73

empty nest syndrome

alleged period of depression in mothers following the departure of their grown children from the home

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74

role loss hypothesis

the idea that parents, especially mothers, will experience a decrease in well-being when their role as caregiver is no longer needed

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75

launching phase

(aka the empty nest stage) when young adult children leave the home. this was described as a period of crisis, particularly for mothers, but more recent surveys have shown that most parents enjoy a renewal in their relationship at this time of being alone

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76

custodial role

full-time, and often permanent, care and guardianship of a grandchild

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77

bridge work

work, often part-time, obtained after retirement from one job that provides a transition between employment and full retirement

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78

leisure innovation

engaging in new leisure activities as part of retirement

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79

Gender based violence

various forms of violence associated with unequal power relationships between men and women

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80

childhood sexual abuse

coercive sexual interaction between a child and an adult

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81

resiliency

the ability to adapt effectively and recover from disappointment, difficulty, or crisis

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82

sexual assault

any intentional sexual attack against another person

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83

rape

any form of sexual intercourse that takes place against a person's will

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84

rape myth

the false belief that, deep down, women enjoy forcible sex and find it sexually exciting

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85

victim blaming

placing the responsibility or blame for a bad outcome on the individual who experiences the bad outcome due to his or her behavior

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86

tonic immobility

temporary state of motor inhibition believed to be a response to situations involving extreme fear.

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87

token resistance

saying "no" to sex when one means "yes"

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88

belief in a just world

A form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people

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89

cultural spillover theory

suggests that violence in one sphere of life tends to engender violence in other spheres

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90

post-traumatic growth

positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises

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91

domestic violence

the use of force to control and maintain power over a spouse in the home

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92

intimate partner violence

domestic violence or battering between two people in a close relationship

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93

cycle of abuse

tension-building stage, a violent episode, and a loving and contrition phase

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94

learned hopefullness

believing that a perpetrator can change

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95

coercive power

The ability of a manager to punish others

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96

elder abuse

the abuse or neglect of older family members

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97

imperialism

A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.

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98

militarism

A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war

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99

bystander intervention

the act of helping strangers in an emergency situation

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100

Gender based violence

occurs at both individual and structural levels-violence againts girls and women has been described as a public health crisis

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