Neuroscience

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amygdala

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107 Terms

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amygdala

activates fear response

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antagonist

chemical outside the body that shuts off receptors

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association cortex

merges information from visual and auditory cortex, neocortex

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astrocytes

glial cells that get nutrients to the neurons and maintain the electrochemical gradient

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autonomic

controls automatic body functions, subset of the peripheral nervous system

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basal ganglia

learn movement and coordination, near base of the brain

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Broca's area

responsible for speech

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cerebellum

coordinates movement and solves problem, behind brainstem

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cerebrum

largest part of brain, anterior portion

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cingulate gyrus

becomes active when we experience unpleasant things

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contralateral

opposite side of body

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diffusion tensor imaging

uses MRI scan that allow white matter to be seen on the scan

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dorsal striatum

consists of caudate and putamen, apart of the basal ganglia, coordinates movement

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endogens

produced by the body

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fusiform gyrus

responsible for facial recognition

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ganglia

group of neurons and glial cells grouped together to preform a certain function

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globus pallidus

inhibits circuits to the thalamus to control how sensory movement is coordinated into movement, part of the basal ganglia

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glutamate

excites neurons

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hippocampus

forming new memories

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hypothalamus

produces hormones

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ipsilateral

same side of the body

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lesion

area of the brain where neurons died

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limbic system

regulates emotions, endocrine system, and forming emotional memories, works on instincts

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medulla

regulates life functions, close to spinal cord

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microglia

clean debris and remove germs, glial cells

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neocortex

outer part of brain that processes high-level information, has gyri and sulci

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nuclei

network of neurons and glia grouped together to preform a certain function

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olfactory cortex

process smell, bottom part of the temporal lobe

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oligodendrocytes

glial cells that wrap myelin around CNS

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parasympathetic

rest, digest, repair, subset of autonomic ns

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agonist

chemicals from outside the body that enhance, mimic, or block neurotransmitter actions

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pons

regulate sleep, awareness and motor function, located in brain stem/myelencephalon

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prefrontal cortex

decision making

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primary auditory cortex

process messages from the ear via the vestibulocochlear nerve, temporal lobe

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reticular activating system

pons and medulla regulate awareness and alterness

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schwann cells

glial sells that wrap myelin around PNS

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somatic

controls movement via skeletal muscles, subset of pns

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substantia nigra

send inhibitory signals to thalamus to coordinate sensory information with motor plans, basal ganglia

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sympathetic

fight, flight, freeze, fuck

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ventral stratum

coordinates movement, consists of substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and part of the basal ganglia

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Wernicke's area

necessary for processing and understanding language

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accommodation

lens changes shape to bring object into focus on the retina

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basilar membrane

tissue inside cochlea where hair cells are located

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binaural cues

auditory clues that require comparison in both ears to understand location of an object

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binocular depth cues

require that the image falls on both eyes to understand how far it is

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bottom up processing

physical message is delivered to the senses

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capgras syndrome

belief a person as been replaced with an imposter

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chemoreceptor

response to specific air molecules, interpret smell and taste, found in nose

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cochlea

snail-shaped inner ear where hair cells are located

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complex cells

respond to motion, located in the visual strait cortex

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congenital analgesia

condition where you cannot experience pain

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cornea

covers eye, responsible for 80% of focusing visual images

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diffuse bipolar cells

receives signal from rods, send signal to large ganglion cells

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dorsal stream

takes information from occipital lobe to parietal lobe to we can identify an objects location

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feature detectors

cells in visual cortex that respond to specific stimuli

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fovea

portion of the retina directly behind the pupil that has a high concentration of cones

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fregoli delusion

belief that an unknown person is a familiar person in disguise

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frequency theory

understand pitch due to rate of cellular firing in the basilar membrane

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gate control theory of pain

painful stimuli is blocked by the spinal cord when you engage in other activities

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60

principle of closure

we perceive objects as whole even when parts are missing

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principle of common fate

objects that move together are grouped together

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principle of good continuation

when lines cross each other we perceive them as continuous

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principle of proximity

objects close together are grouped together

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principle of similarity

objects that are similar are grouped together

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auditory hair cells

sensory neurons in the eat that convert soundwaves into neural firing

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vestibular hair cells

sensory neurons in vestibular sacs that converts information of gravity into neural firing

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interaural level difference

compares intensity of difference sounds that arrive at each ear to understand location

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interaural time difference

compares small differences in arrival times of sound in each ear

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involuntary musical imagery

inability to dislodge a song from one's conscious

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kinesthetic sense

how we sense our bodies in space

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large ganglion cells

receive information from diffuse bipolar cells, turns into optic nerve when leaving the eye

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lateral geniculate nucleus

six layered portion of the thalamus that processes visual information

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lens

flexible tissue that focuses light on the retina

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long wavelength cones

respond to red light

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mechanoreceptors

respond to pressure on skin

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medial geniculate nucleus

portion of the thalamus that organizes auditory information before sending it to the auditory cortex

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medium wavelength cones

respond to green/yellow light

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midget bipolar cells

receive signals from cones and send messages to small ganglion cells

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monocular depth cues

require one eye to understand, information about depth and distance

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olfactory mucosa

tissue containing chemoreceptors in the nose

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81

olfactory receptor neurons

respond the specific odorant

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optic chiasma

where optic nerve crosses before reaching the thalamus

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orbitofrontal cortex

analyses both taste and smell

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ossicles

three small bones in the eat that amplify vibrations at the eardrum and transmit those signals to the oval window of the cochlea

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papillae

bumps on tongue where tastebuds are located

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86

pinna

external part of the ear

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87

place theory

understands pitch due to location firing in the basilar membrane

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88

psychophysics

attempts to understand the way physical sensations are translated into perceptions

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prosopagnosia

inability to recognize faces

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90

retinal disparity

difference between images that fell on each eye, used to figure out distance between us and the object

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retinotopic organization

spatial organization of the retinal image maintained through the visual pathway

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semicircular canal

sense change in acceleration and rotation of the head, inner ear

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simple cells

response to lines in a specific orientation, found in the visual striate cortex

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small ganglion cells

receives signals from midget bipolar cells, turns into optic nerve

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95

somatosensory cortex

processes touch and motion, parietal lobe

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96

thermoreceptor

detect changes in temperature on the skin

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tonotopic organization

spatial organization of the basilar membrane maintained through the auditory pathway

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98

top down processing

integrates one's beliefs and memories into their sensory experience

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transduction

external sensations are converted into neural firing

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trichromatic theory

colour information is identified by comparing activities of difference cones

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