Greek Architecture

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GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCE

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GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCE

The rugged nature of the Greek Peninsula & its widespread islands, made

communication difficult. It was bounded on two sides by "Black Sea and

the Mediterranean Sea"

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Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea

The rugged nature of the Greek Peninsula & its widespread islands, made

communication difficult. It was bounded on two sides by "____________"

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Citadels

GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCE: "Athens as its center kingdom contains the upper city known as "________"

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Marble

GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE:

the chief building material

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Stone

GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE:

had an ample supplies of this material.

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AEGANS

RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE

worships "nature" and priestesses rather than priest conducted

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GREEKS

RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE

Represents their deities by large statues. Worships "natural

phenomena

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APHRODITE

goddess of commerce, love and beauty

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APOLLO

god of law and reason, art and music and poetry

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ARES

god of war

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ARTEMIS

goddess of chastity

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DEMETER

goddess of earth and agriculture

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HERA

wife of Zeus, goddess of marriage

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ATHENA

goddess of learning and wisdom

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ZEUS

supreme god, ruler of the sky, chief god.

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HERMES

messenger of the gods

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POSEIDON

god of the sea

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EARLY PERIOD

3000BC -700 BC

People on in Greece were Aegans, Minoans, & Myceneans

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HELLENIC PERIOD

Essentially columnar & trabeated in Acropolis which was Crowned by

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a. Simplicity and Harmony

b. Purity of Lines

c. Perfections of Proportions

d. Refinement of Details

CHARACTERISTIC OF GREEK ARCH

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Cyclopean, Polygonal, Rectangular, Inclined Blocks

FOUR METHODS OF WALLING SURFACE FINISHES

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CYCLOPEAN

a masonry made up of huge stone blocks laid mortar

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POLYGONAL

a masonry which is constructed with stones having polygonal faces.

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RECTANGULAR

block of stone cut into rectangular shapes

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INCLINED BLOCKS

stones with inclined blocks.

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TWO WAYS OF DESCRIBING TEMPLES

(a) According to the number of columns on the entrance front

(b) by the arrangement of the exterior columns of the temple in relation to naos

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HENOSTYLE

one column

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DISTYLE

two columns

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TRISTYLE

three columns

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TETRASTYLE

four columns

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PENTASTYLE

five columns

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HEXASTYLE

six columns

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HEPTASYLE

seven columns

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OCTASTYLE

eight columns

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ENNEASTYLE

nine columns

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DECASTYLE

ten columns

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DODECASTYLE

twelve columns

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Naos, Pranaos, Epinaos

PARTS OF A GREEK TEMPLE

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NAOS

principal chamber containing the statue of the god or goddess with porticoes

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PRONAOS

the inner portico in front of naos or cella of the naos.

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EPINAOS

posticum which serves as the treasury chambers

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<p><strong>INTERCOLUMNIATION</strong></p>
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<p><strong>INTERCOLUMNIATION</strong></p>

INTERCOLUMNIATION

the space between two adjacent columns, usually the clear space between the lower parts of the shafts, measured in diameters. Also, a system for spacing columns in a colonnade based on the measurement

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ACCOUPLEMENT

The placement of two columns or pilasters very close to each other is called "___________"

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PYCNOSTYLE

Having an intercolumniation of 1 ½ diameters.

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SYSTYLE

Having an intercolumniation of 2 diameters

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EUSTYLE

Having an intercolumniation of 2 ¼ diameters.

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DIASTYLE

Having an intercolumniation of 3 diameters.

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ARAEOSTYLE

Having an intercolumniation of 4 diameters.

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<p>LAYOUT OF GREEK TEMPLES</p>
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<p>LAYOUT OF GREEK TEMPLES</p>

LAYOUT OF GREEK TEMPLES

anta, double anta, amphiprostyle, prostyle, dipteral, pseudodipteral, peripteral, pseudoperipteral

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ANTA

temples have one to four columns between antae at the front. Two is the usual number.

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DOUBLE ANTA

temples have one to four columns between antae at the front and the rear. Two is the usual number

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AMPHIPROSTYLE

temples that have portico of columns at front and rear.

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PROSTYLE

temples that have portico of columns at front only.

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DIPTERAL

temples that have a double line of columns surrounding on all sides.

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PSEUDODIPTERAL

temples that having a double line of columns but the inner range of columns is attached to the naos.

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PERIPTERAL

temples that have a single line of columns surrounding on all sides

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PSEUDOPERIPTERAL

temples that have flanked of columns attached to the naos.

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GREEK ORDERS

Doric, Ionic, Corinthian

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<p>DORIC ORDER</p>
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<p>DORIC ORDER</p>

DORIC ORDER

The simplest and the earliest among the five orders.

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PEDIMENT PARTS

Antefixae, Tympanum, Acroterion

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ANTEFIXAE

an upright ornament at the eaves of a roof concealing the foot of a row of convex tiles that cover the joints of the flat tiles.

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TYMPANUM

the triangular space enclosed by the horizontal and raking cornices of a pediment, often

recessed and decorated with sculpture.

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ACROTERION

a pedestal for a sculpture ornament at the apex or at each of the lower corners of a pediment.

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ENTABLATURE PARTS

Cornice, Frieze, Architrave

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CORNICE

the uppermost member of an entablature, consisting typically of a cymatium, corona, and bed molding.

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FRIEZE

the horizontal part of an entablature between the cornice and architrave, often decorated with sculpture inflow relief.

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ARCHITRAVE

the lowermost division of an entablature, resting directly on the column capitals and supporting the frieze.

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COLUMN PARTS

Captial, Shaft, Stylobate, Stereobate

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CAPITAL

the distinctively treated upper end of a column, pillar, or pier, crowning the shaft and taking the weight of the entablature or architrave.

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SHAFT

the central part of a column or pier between the capital and the base.

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STYLOBATE

a course of masonry forming the foundation for a row of columns especially the outermost colonnade of a classical temple.

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STEREOBATE

a solid mass of masonry visible above ground level and serving as the foundation of a building especially the platform forming the floor and substructure of a classical temple also called as crepidoma.

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<p>IONIC ORDER</p>
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<p>IONIC ORDER</p>

IONIC ORDER

More sophisticated order. Less heavy than the Doric, less elaborated than the Corinthian order.

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EGG AND DART

an ornamental motif for enriching an ovolo or echinus, consisting of a closely set, alternating series of oval and pointed forms. Also called "egg and tongue"

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DENTIL

any of a series of closely spaced, small rectangular blocks forming a molding or projecting beneath the coronas of Ionic cornices.

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FASCIA

one of the three horizontal banda making up the architrave in the Ionic order.

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VOLUTE

a spiral, scroll like ornament, as on the capitals of the Ionic order.

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CATHETUS

the vertical guideline through the eye of a volute in an Ionic capital, from which the spiral forms is determined.

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FLEURON, BALTEUS

In Ionic Capital, if there is a central flower, it is called "_" and "" if none.

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<p>CORINTHIAN ORDER</p>
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<p>CORINTHIAN ORDER</p>

CORINTHIAN ORDER

Most elaborated & most elegant of all the orders. Looks like an "Inverted Bell."

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MODILLION

an ornament bracket, usually in the form of a scroll with acanthus, used in series beneath the corona of a Corinthian.

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HELIX

a spiral ornament, as any of the volutes issuing from a cauliculus in a Corinthian capital

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CAULICULUS

any of the ornamental stalks rising between the acanthus leaves of a Corinthian capital, from which volutes spring.

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BELL

the underlying part of a foliated capital, between the abacus and neck molding

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