BIOS 110: Exam III

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Prophase

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Prophase

The first stage of mitosis/meiosis, nuclear envelope breaks down and chromosomes are visible under a microscope

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Metaphase

The second stage of mitosis/meiosis, chromosomes are at opposite poles and aligned

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Anaphase

The third stage of mitosis/meiosis, chromosomes are pulled apart by spindle fibers

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Telophase

The last stage of mitosis/meiosis, nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes to create 2 (mitosis) or 4 (meiosis) daughter cells

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Mitosis

Cell division that creates 2 identical daughter cells, happens asexually

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Meiosis

Cell division that creates 4 genetically unique daughter cells, happens sexually

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Crossing over

Occurs in prophase I, interchange of sections between homologous chromosomes (only in meiosis)

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Independent assortment

Randomization of chromosome location that creates genetic diversity, 2n = number of possibilities

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Non disjunction

Failure of chromosomes to separate during anaphase I or II which creates unequal daughter cells, most likely occurs in women over 40

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G0 Phase

"Holding state" for cells who are do not need to divide

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G1 Checkpoint

Checkpoint in which the cell determines if it is able to divide based on undamaged DNA and adequate cell size

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G2 Checkpoint

Checkpoint to see if cells have replicated their DNA successfully

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Metaphase checkpoint

Checkpoint to see if a cell's DNA is attached to spindle fibers

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Proto-oncogene

A gene that encourages cell growth

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Tumor suppressor gene

A gene that blocks unscheduled or unneeded cell division

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Anchorage dependence

Requirement that a cell needs to be attached to something in order to replicate (cancer cells lack this)

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p53

A gene that will cause cell death (apoptosis) due to damaged DNA

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Diploid

A cell containing 2 complete sets of chromosomes

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Haploid

A cell containing only 1 complete set of chromosomes

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Social control

Cells divide in response from other cells

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E2F

Proto-oncogene, binds to Rb and enters nucleus to encourage cell division in the S phase

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Rb

Tumor suppressor gene, "bouncer" for E2F that ensures it is a proto-oncogene and can enter the nucleus

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Diversity dependent inhibition

Once a layer of cells have divided enough to fill a space, they will stop dividing

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Contact inhibition

If a cell is touching another cell on all sides, it will not divide

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Cyclins

Molecule whose concentration varies during various stages of the cell cycle

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MPF

Promotes mitosis and degradation of cyclins

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Apoptosis

Cell death caused by activation of p53

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Oncogene

Cell with unregulated cell growth and becomes a cancer cell

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DNA base pairings

A-T / C-G

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RNA base pairings

A-U / C-G

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Leading strand

Synthesized 5' to 3'

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Lagging strand

Synthesized 3' to 5'

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Telomerase

Enzyme that adds telomeres to the 3' end of DNA, only in eukaryotes

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Neutral mutation

Change in base pairings, but does not affect the protein

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Missense mutation

Alters a codon for one amino acid that causes it to read as a different amino acid (for example, CUG --> CGU)

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Nonsense mutation

Alters a codon for one amino acid that changes it into a stop codon

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Frameshift mutation

Alters the reading frame of codons that causes a domino effect for all codons after it (for example, CUG --> CCUG)

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tRNA

Contains an attachment site and anticodon that are complementary to the codon

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P site

Site that carries the tRNA that holds the growing chain

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A site

Site that carries the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain

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E site

Site that ejects the discharged tRNAs

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Initiation

Start of the protein synthesis process, occurs once

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Elongation

Addition of amino acids to the chain, occurs more than once

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Termination

Ends protein synthesis process due to release factors, occurs once

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