1600s world history

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Hapsburgs

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1

Hapsburgs

strongest family in Europe. controlled central europe, spain, southern italy, french area of burgundy, netherlands. lost most of their power to Treaty of Westphalia

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2

Religious intolerance of spain

jews and protestants forced out, caused a decline of arts, culture and buisness

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3

Charles V

Important figure in Hapsburg family. Grandson of Ferdinand and isabella. Inherited the netherlands at 6, king of spain at 15, and holy roman emperor at 20. Spain thrived; HRE in trouble not accepted by his people; gave up power; spent rest of his life in a monastery

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4

Balance of power

france feared the hapsburg family would take all of the power. tried to bring balance to europe

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5

Netherlands Revolt

protestants revolted bc they didnt want to switch under Philip II. Spanish Inquisition fueled a larger revolt. Protestants in the north declare independence and form the Dutch Netherlands; southern part remains Catholic and with Spain

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6

Mary I

said England would be kept Protestant under her; married King Philip 2 of Spain; bloody purge of Protestants; Mary dies of cancer

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7

Elizabeth I

becomes Queen after Mary's death; returns to the Church of England

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8

Mary Queen of Scots (Stuart)

Cousin of Elizabeth I, next in line to the throne of England, executed by Elizabeth I because she was the center of Catholic plots to overthrow Elizabeth

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9

Reformation in France

French Protestants known as Huguenots. fighting breaks out and erupts into full scale civil war led by Protestants and Catholic Nobles. Wedding of Henry of Navarre led to the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre where 10,000 HUguenots died in the streets of Paris. Then Henry III was assassinated. Henry of Navarre becomes Henry IV. The Edict of Nantes makes religious equality. Henry IV was assassinated and 9 year old son became Louis XIII but he did not make decisions. Chief Minister was Cardinal Richelieu who made the decisions. He was cool headed, ruthless and anti-protestant.

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10

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

10,000 Huguenots were slaughtered in the streets of paris at Henry of Navarre's wedding.

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11

Huguenots

These were French Protestants. They rebelled and tried to make it France's main religion.

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12

Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)

Henry of Navarre became king after his dad was assassinated. Was assassinated and his nine year old son became king.

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13

Louis XIII

Inherited throne at 9 after Henry of Navarre, Cardinal Richelieu took over while Louis was too young to rule, brought france into the Thirty Years War.

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14

Cardinal Richelieu

Chief Minister, took over for Louis XIII when he was too young, cool headed, ruthless, anti-protestant.

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15

Louis XIV (The Sun King)

disorder and uprisings happened when he became king at the age of 9 and was driven out of a palace by rioters (life changing) caused him to ignore everyone else and rule by absolute monarchy. He appointed intendants and gave officials more power and took away the noble's power. He built Versailles He had the strongest army at the time and reigned for 72 years.

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16

Versailles

French palace that was originally a hunting lounge but turned into a massive palace by Louis XIV, it held all the nobles in the country and they all lived there. Some famous locations in the palace are the hall of mirrors and the King's Room. The palace was always being added to.

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17

James I (Stuart) james of scotland

took over the Tudor reign after they produced no heirs. Tried to assert authority over the government , leading to conflict with Parliament. He believed in divine right. Spent a lot on lifestyle, ran up expenses. James was Anglican and threatened Puritans, and led to many puritans fleeing to the colonies (NA). Made a new translation of the bible King James Version.

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18

Charles I (England)

behaved like an absolute monarch; imprisoned his foes without trial and squeezed the nation for money; dissolved Parliament after he didn't get what he wanted; was executed

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19

Petition of Rights

prohibited the king from raising taxes without the consent of Parliament or from imprisoning anyone without a just cause; Charles I signed this (charles ignored this)

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20

Puritains

These were protestants who wanted to "purify" the church. They wanted to change the Church of England to be basic and plain. Most went to new world

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21

Oliver Cromwell

Commander of the Roundheads and led them to victory against the Cavaliers.

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22

Cavaliers

Supported Charles I of England in the English Civil War, wealthy nobles, trained in dueling and warfare, lost

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23

Roundheads

called this because their hair was cut close around their heads; composed of country gentry, Puritan clergy; leader was Oliver Cromwell, supported parliament

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24

Restoration

Charles II rule. the merry monarch who supported the arts, sciences entertainment. parliament settled englands religious issues. church of england (anglican) became state religion. puritan clergy was removed from churches

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25

Charles II (Merry Monarch)

mostly well liked and supported many things puritans did not like. England became a constitutional monarchy, this made other European nations feel threatened. When he died his brother James II took the throne and claimed divine right.

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26

Glorious Revolution

Happened when James II fled England because PArliament opposed of his doings/actions. Overthrowing of james II. William And Mary took over

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27

Thirty Years War

German and Austrian States. Catholic Hapsburgs vs Protestants. Politics mixed with religion. Protestant nations declared war. France joined with the Protestants to make sure Hapsburgs didnt get too much power. defenestration of prague

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28

peace of westphalia

ends 30 years war. Hapsburgs fail to unite europe. No more HRE. new nations: united netherlands and switzerland. France became the leading power in europe.

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29

War of Spanish Succession

Hapsburg King of Spain had no heirs. want Philip of Anjou, but he is grandson of Louis XIV. other european powers dont accept this. ends with Peace of Utrecht

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30

Peace of Utrecht

Philip becomes king of spain, and is never allowed to rule france. Spanish Netherlands (not united netherlands) and Spanish claims of Milan, Sardina, Naples go to Hapsburgs. Britain took gibraltar from spain, france failed to united europe

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31

Charles II (Spain)

deformed Hapsburg king of spain. no heirs to the throne, philip of anjou takes his place.

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32

Philip of Anjou

grandson of Louis XIV succeeded Charles II and became king of Spain. was never allowed to rule france.

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33

Frederick the Great

Frederick II invaded Austria during war of Austrian Succession. he drained swamps, forced peasants to grow new crops. supported religious tolerance, and distributed tools and seed to peasants.

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34

Maria Theresa

took throne of austria when charles vi (father) died. opposition from Frederick II of Prussia. queen during war of austrian succession. religious tolerance. ended censorship

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35

War of Austrian Succession

Other European nations did not recognize Maria Theresa as the queen. Frederick II of Prussia invaded Hapsburg province and Austria. Maria was not able to force Frederick II out

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36

Ivan IV (Russia)

Ivan the greats grandson that wanted unlimited power. known as ivan the terrible. persecuted boyars.

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37

Times of Trouble

russia had few trained educated leaders. armed bands cause havoc. townspeople elect new czar/tzar. Led to Michael Romanov of Romanov family

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38

Peter I

10 year old that became czar/tzar, traveled to europe, brought experts to westernize russia. created st. petersburg.

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39

Westernization

adaptation of western culture in russia. improved education, simplified alphabet, established waterways, and encouraged exports

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40

boyars

Russian nobles

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41

St. Petersburg

built by peter the great on land taken from sweden. window to the west. built over a drained swamp. italian architects.

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42

Catherine I

a german who took over from Peter II. different from peter but great. gave more freedom to nobles, ruthless, and had support of military. gave boyars power and defeated ottoman empire.

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