Biology Midterm

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How does a plant respond to the environment

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12.13.22

95 Terms

1

How does a plant respond to the environment

by turning towards the sun

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2

Example of an adaption

Abmeoba has a structure that allows it to pump out excess water from it's body

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3

what does a horse gain energy from

the grass it eats

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4

when does a Caterpillar undergo dramatic changes

as it grows and develops

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5

what are all organisms composed of

cells and cells are the smallest unit of life

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6

levels of organization from simple to complex:

molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

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7

cells work together to form

tissues

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8

tissues that function together make

organs

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9

the molecular level:

DNA, proteins, carbs, and lipids

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10

genetics

the study of heredity

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11

Anatomy

The study of body structure

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12

Botany

study of plants

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13

Ecology

the study of the environment

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14

what is a hypothesis

an attempt to explain an event or a set of observations

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15

what are carefully designed experiments useful for

testing hypotheses

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16

what are the 2 parts of an experiment

the experimental set up and the control set up

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17

what is a microscope

an instrument that produces enlarged images of a specimen. The best light microscope can magnify up to 1500 times.

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18

the parts of the microscope:

body tube, revolving nose piece, scanning, high power objective, low power objective, stage clips, diaphragm, light source, ocular lens, arm, stage, coarse focus, fine focus, and base

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19

ocular lens:

10x magnification

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20

low power objective:

10x magnification, 100x total magnification

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21

high power objective:

40x magnification, 400x total magnification

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22

what does good resolution mean

the image is clear

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23

what is an atom

the smallest particle of an element that has the element's properties

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24

what are the 3 particles that make up an atom

proton, neutron and electron

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25

first energy level in an atom:

can hold a maximum of 2 electrons

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26

atomic number:

determined by the number of protons in an element

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27

atomic mass:

determined by the number of protons and neutrons in an element

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28

organic molecules:

any molecule with carbon including the carbs, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids

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29

inorganic molecules:

water, carbon dioxide or CO2, and carbon monoxide or CO are inorganic molecules

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30

carbon:

has 6 electrons - 4 are available for bonding

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31

functional groups:

groups of atoms that carry out chemical reactions

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32

monomer:

small building block molecules

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33

polymers:

molecules made by linking 2 or more monomers

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34

dehydration:

process of removing water to form a compound

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35

hyrolysis

process of splitting a molecule with water

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36

what are 3 elements that make up carbohydrates

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

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37

What are monosaccharides

glucose (blood sugar), fructose (fruit sugar), and galactose

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38

what are the disaccharides

sucorse (table sugar), and lactose (milk sugar)

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39

What are polysaccharides

chitin, cellulose, glycogen, and starch

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40

chitin:

exoskeleton of certain animals

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41

cellulose:

cell walls of plants, gives plants support

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42

glycogen:

how animals store excess sugar

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43

starch:

how plants store excess sugar

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44

what are the lipids

fats, waxes, steroids, and phospholipids

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45

peptide:

consist of 2 or more amino acids and they make up proteins

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46

saturated fats:

like butter are made of fatty acids containing no double bonds

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aminoo acid:

contains an amino functional group and a carboxyl functional group and the peptide bond forms between these two groups when amino acid bond to each other

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48

enzymes:

proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body

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49

cell theory:

all biological organisms are composed of cells; cells are the unit of life and all life comes from preexisting cells

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50

diffusion:

net movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

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51

osmosis:

diffusion of water

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52

hypotonic solution:

the concentration of solutes is lower than the concentration f solutes inside the cells so water moves into the cell

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53

hypertonic solution:

the concentration of solutes is higher than the concentrations of solutes inside the cells so the water moves out of the cells

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54

isotonic solution:

concentration of solutes is equal

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55

active transport:

uses energy to take molecules across the membrane

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56

bulk transport:

moves large molecules across the membrane

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57

endocytosis:

brings in large molecules in bulk

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58

exocytosis:

removes large molecules in bulk

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59

cell cycle:

phases of the life of the cell

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60

interphase:

period of growth prior to division

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61

cell division:

made up of mitosis and cytokinesis

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62

what happens during the s phase of interphase

the chromosomes replicate

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63

phases of mitosis:

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

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64

gametes:

sexual reproductive cells that result from meiosis

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65

zygote:

single cells that result from sexual reproduction

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66

what are homologous pairs

matching pairs of chromosomes

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67

Meiosis 1:

separates homologous pairs of chromosomes

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68

meiosis 2:

separates sister chromatid

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69

trait:

any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring

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70

hybrid:

gets different genetic information from each parent

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71

each of Mendel's traits:

occurred in 2 distinct observable forms

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72

purebred plants:

produce only plants like themselves when they self fertilize

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73

recessive trait:

what Mendel called the trait that did not show up in the hybrid

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74

allele:

different versions of a gene for the same trait

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75

genotype:

the actual genetic makeup of an organism

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76

heterozygous:

an organism with 2 alleles for a trait that are different

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77

Punnett Square:

a grid that shows all the possible results of a genetic cross

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78

incomplete dominance:

not dominant or recessive alleles, the heterozygote shows an in between of the 2 homozygous phenotypes

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79

co dominance:

when both homozygous phenotypes show up in the heterzygous

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80

example of co dominance:

AB blood type

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81

examples of polygenic traits:

eyes, skin and hair color

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82

(Know how to work all types of genetic problems that we have covered up to midterm.)

.

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83

linked gene:

when genes are close together on the same chromosome

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84

sex-linked gene:

applies to the genes that are located on the sex chromosome

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85

(know how to work sex linked problems and pedigree.)

.

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86

what did Walter Sutton say

chromosomes are the basis of heredity

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87

what did Theodor Boveri say

male sperm nuclei and female egg nuclei were equivalent in the amount of hereditary information

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88

what did Bateson and Punnet do

they co-discovered gene-linkage and re-did Mendel's experiments

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89

Recombinants:

result of crossing over

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90

what did Thomas Hunt Morgan do

conducted statistical studies of the way genetic traits are passed on in fruit flies

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91
<p>Down Syndrome mutation:</p>

Down Syndrome mutation:

-non-disjunction

-trisomy 21

-moon face

-thick or protruding tongue

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92
<p>Klinefelters Syndrome mutation:</p>

Klinefelters Syndrome mutation:

-non-dis-junction

-trisomy 23

-only in males

-have feminine features

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93
<p>Cri du chat syndrome mutation:</p>

Cri du chat syndrome mutation:

-structural

-deletion of the 5th chromosome

-cat like cry

-small head, low birth weight

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94
<p>Turner&apos;s Syndrome mutation:</p>

Turner's Syndrome mutation:

-non-disjunction

-monosomy

-webbed neck, short stature

-only in women

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95

What did Nettie Stevens do

one of the first scientists to find that sex is determined by a particular configuration of chromosomes

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