Intro to Sociology Exam 3 Final

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Symptoms of Groupthink

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Symptoms of Groupthink

An illusion of invulnerability Unquestioned belief in the group's morality Rationalization Sereotyped view of opponet Conformity Pressure Self-censorship Illusion of unanimous decision Mindgurads

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Mindguards

Controls/filters the amount of information, in an effort, to focus the group, limit dissent, and direct decisions to a narrow range of outcomes (could be positive or negative)

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What society is most likely to view men and women equally

Hunting and gathering societies

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Primary group

Intimate, face to face interactions, provides a sense of identity, group values fuse with "selfhood", central in forming social nature and ideals of individuals

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Secondary group

Larger, impersonal, more formal (classroom), based on common interests, generally fail to satisfy, created for relationship/ intimacy and tend to have primary groups embedded

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In-group

Loyalty, tend to excuse/overlool faults, apt to defend

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Out-group

Antagonism, tend to make faults issues of character, apt to accuse

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Reference group

Standard for comparison (does not have to be in group to which you belong) often leads to adoption of characteristics, can produce inner conflict (implicative dilemmas)

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Implicative dilemmas

Change in one construct at odds with another construct

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Social networks

Links between people Cliques Networking

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Cliques

Small groups that often formed from a larger network- people tend to belong to multiple

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Group dynamics

Impact of the group on the individual and the individual on the group

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Dyads

2 people, most intimate, least stable, only 1 person needs to lose intrest

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Triads

3 people Fundamental changes to structure/ relationships Intimacy and interaction decrease Unstable (according to Simmel) Smallest stable unit (according to Bowen)

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Instrumental leader

Generally more reconized Task-oriented, keeps group on target

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Expressive leader

Generally not recognized Focused on unity and harmony, decreasing conflict

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Authoritarian

More likely to give orders

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Democratic

More likely to seek consensus

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Laissez-faire

Tends to be highly permissive

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Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity demonstrated that

Because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true

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Milgram's "teacher learner" experiments demonstrated that

A substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority.

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Genocide

the annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people because of their presumed race or ethnicity

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Race

A group whose inherited physical characteristics distinguish it from other groups; a supposed biological approach

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Ethinicty

Having a distinctive cultural characteristics (nation or region of origin, food, clothing, religion)

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Desmond's parents style

Authoritative

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Stephanie's parenting style

Authoritarian and some uninvolved

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Elijah's parents style

Neglectful and uninvolved. His grandparents were the same.

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How do groups become a minority

Through the expansion of political boundaries and immigration (involuntary or voluntary)

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Discrimination

an act of unfair treatment directed against and individual or a group

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Prejudice

an attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way

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What is contact theory

the idea that prejudice and negative stereotypes decrease and racial-ethnic relations improve when people from different racial-ethnic background, who are of equal status, interact frequently

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Positive impacts of parenting

Child is successful, positive, has a good relationship with parents and is motivated, higher education

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Negative impacts of parenting

Child has low self esteem, health concerns, low education, spend time in jail

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Serve and return interaction

The child “serves” by reaching out for interaction—eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, babbling, or touch. A responsive caregiver will “return the serve” by speaking back, playing peekaboo, or sharing a toy or a laugh.

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ACEs and relationship to human development

As the number of negative experiences increased, the rates of lifelong adverse consequences escalate.

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Participants of the Tuskegee Syphilis study

600 poor, black males

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5 Tenets of CRT

Race is a social construct Racism is normal, not aberrational Interest Convergence accounts for changes in minority rights Storytelling & Counter-storytelling Whites have been recipients of Civil Rights legislation

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Implicit bias

A form of bias that occurs automatically and unintentionally, that nevertheless affects judgments, decisions, and behaviors

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Microaggression

A comment or action that subtly and often unconsciously or unintentionally expresses a prejudiced attitude toward a member of a marginalized group

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Intersectionality

The oppression and discrimination resulting from the overlap of an individual’s various social identities

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