# GCSE science: Working scientifically

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what are the 3 stages of when i scientist comes up with a hypothesis ?

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1

what are the 3 stages of when i scientist comes up with a hypothesis ?

1. the scientist tests it

2. then multiple scientists will test it

3. if all the evidence supports it the hypothesis is accepted for now

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2

what is the independant variable

the variable that changes

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3

What is the dependant variable

the variable that is measured

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4

what is the control variable

the variable that stays the same

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5

What makes evidence valid ?

• it has to be repeatable

• it has to be repoducable

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6

What is accurate data ?

data that is close to the true answer

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7

What is precise data ?

when the data collected are all very close to each other and the mean

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8

What is a random error ?

unpredicatbale differences in things such as human error and measuring.

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9

What is a systematic error?

when a measurement is wrong by the same amount every time

repeating the experiment the exact same way will not correct it

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10

What is a zero error ?

when equipment is not set to zero and has a reading before use

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11

How can you solve a zero error ?

by noting the initial measurement and subtracting it from all your results at the end

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12

What do you do with anomolous results

yu can ignore it when processing the results (e.g., a mean)

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13

Define:

• mean

• median

• mode

• mean - add all numbers together and divide by how many results

• median - righting the numbers in numerical order and finding the middle number

• mode - find the value that occurs the most freuqent

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14

how do you present categorical data ?

in a bar chart

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15

how do present continuous data

in a line graph

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16

What axis does the dependant variable go on ?

What axis does the independant variable go on ?

dependant - y axis

independant - x axis

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17

How do you find out the gradient ?

change in y/ change in x

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18

How do you find the gradient of a point on a curve ?

draw a tangent from that point on the curve and find out the gradient of the tangent

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19

What does this graph show ?

Positive corrolation

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20

What does this graph show ?

Negative corrolation

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21

What does this graph show ?

No corrolation

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22

What is the multiple unit for tera ?

1 x 10^12

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23

What is the multiple unit for giga ?

1 x 10^9

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24

What is the multiple unit for mega ?

1 x 10^6

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25

What is the multiple unit for kilo ?

1 x 10^3

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26

What is the multiple unit for deci ?

1 x 10^-1

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27

What is the multiple unit for centi ?

1 x 10^-2

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28

What is the multiple unit for milli ?

1 x 10^-3

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29

What is the multiple unit for micro ? (μ)

1 x 10^-6

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30

What is the multiple unit for nano ? (n)

1 x 10^-9

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31

What do you do if you are going from a smaller to bigger unit ?

divide

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32

What do you do if you are going from a bigger to smaller unit ?

multiply

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33

how dyou figure out the uncertainty ?

range/2

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34

What should yo include in a scientific evaluation ?

• is the method valid and a fair test

• quality of the results (repeatable, repoducable, accurate,precise)

• were there any anomolous results and which error caused them

• comment on the uncertainty

• suggest any changes to the method to omprove the quality of the results

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