H&S Exam 2

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Herman von Helmholtz


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81 Terms

Herman von Helmholtz

Invented ophthalmoscope, ophthalmometer and myograph. Discovered he could focus the light reflected from the retina to produce an image of the tissue. ~Eye related studies. He was one of the 3 psychophysicists who laid the foundation of experimental psychology.

Ernst Weber

Studied Kinesthesis (refers to the sensations caused by muscular activity). Studied Two-point threshold, just noticeable difference, and Weber's law (quantifies the perception of change in a given stimulus)

Gustave Fechner

Coined the term and was the father of psychophysics. It was defined as the study of the sensation and perception of physical stimuli. He formalized psychophysics as an area of research.

Wilhelm Wundt

Contributed introspection, voluntarism, apperception, and tridimensional theory of emotion to psychology.

Hermann Ebbinghaus

Discovered that nonsense material is harder to learn. Also discovered the forgetting curve, serial positioning effect, and spacing effect.

Franz Brentano

founder of Act Psychology

Carl Stumpf

was associated with the method of introspection called phenomenology

Oswalde Kulpe

had contributions to experimental introspection, imageless thought, and mental set


founder of structuralism, he believed that the goal of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its component parts, thus determining its structure. he compared consciousness to physics. Had three elementary states of consciousness: sensations, images, and emtions

Margaret Floy Washburn

she was the first female with a PhD, wrote the the standard textbook of comparative psychology; The Animal Mind

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

He believed in the inheritance of acquired characteristics (environmental adaptations during one's lifetime were passed onto offspring), differing from Darwin's theory of natural selection.

John Edmonstone

taught Darwin taxidermy

Alfred Russel Wallace

e co-presenter of the theory of natural selection, Darwin got most of the credit due to having more published works

Thomas Huxley

supporter of Darwin

Francis Galton

Studied newly developed statistic methods; talked about mental inheritance and founded eugenics. He developed statistical methods and mental tests

George John Romanes

thought of introspection by analogy. Came up with the technique for studying animal behavior by assuming that the same mental processes that occur in the human observer's mind. Developed Anthropomorphism

C. Lloyd Morgan

Came up with Law of Parsimony. sort of the opposite of Romanes

Herbert Spencer

Synthetic philosophy

William James

Suffered from hypochondriasis, anxiety, and depression; related to the epidemic of neurasthenia. FOunded the first experimental psychology lab in the US (Harvard). Stream of consciousness. Theory of Emotion. Triparte Self

W.E.B. DuBois

First black person to get PhD from Harvard, first sociology research on Black Americans; the Souls of Black Folk - double consciousness; black people must be conscious over how they view themselves vs how others view them

Mary Whiton Calkins, Helen Thompson Woolley, and Leta Stetter Hollingworth

3 women who made meaningful contributions to psychology as functionalists despite there being strong discrimination against women at the time. Had the hypothesis of men showed a wider range of physical/mental development than women, thus women's abilities are seen more average

John Dewey

Rethinking the reductionism of the Reflex Arc

Granville Stanley Hall

Recapitulation theory; psychological development from infancy through childhood and to adulthood repeats the evolutionary history of the human race

James Rowland Angell

Wrote a textbook that detailed the principles of functionalism

Robert Woodworth

Founder of dynamic psychology

James McKeen Cattell

introduced mental tests to US (physical skills)

Alfred Binet

Developed the first practical tests of intelligence which have evolved into the widely used Standford-Binet intelligence scale used today

Henry Goddard

He used his own translation of the Binet IQ test and attempted to identify mentally retarded individuals in order to prevent them from entering the US at Ellis Island. This created a racist trend, IQ tests were incorrectly used to suggest that racial and ethnic minorities were mentally inferior

Horace Mann Bond

African American scholar; Published a few books arguing that the recorded differences in IQ scores based on ethnicity was attributable to the environment rather than heritability

Florence Goodenough, Maud Merrill, and Psyche Cattell

three women who made early contributions to psychological testing

Lightner Witmer

Introduced the term Clinical Psychology and opened the first psychological clinic in 1896

Lillian Gilbreth

First industrial-organizational psychology Ph.D., Did an analysis of workers by filming workers to analyzing their movements in order to find efficient ways to work

Hugo Munsterberg

Pioneered forensic psychology, lie detection

The three psychophysics guys who laid the foundation for experimental psychology

Ernst Weber, Hermann von Helmoltz, + Gustav Fechner

What did Hermann von Helmholtz invent, and what did he discover?

Ophthalmoscope, ophthalmometer, and myograph Discovered that he could focus the light reflected from the retina to produce a sharp image of the tissue

What was Ernst Weber interested in studying?

Kinethesis, Two-Point Threshold, Just Noticeable Difference, Weber's Law

Who is considered to be the "father of psychophysics" and why?

Gustav Fechner; coined the term "psychophysics" to describe the study of the sensation and perception of physical stimuli and formalized psychophysics as an area of research

What are the five traditional senses and to what sense is kinesthesis related?

Hearing, sight, smell, touch, and taste Kinesthesis refers to the sensations caused by muscular activity (touch?)

What is the general extension or real-world implication of Weber's law?

Whispers heard in a quiet room vs. yelling at a concert

In what year was the first truly experimental psychology laboratory founded by Wilhelm Wundt at the University of Leipzig in Germany?


Wilhelm Wundt's other important contributions to psychology

Introspection; reflecting on one's own mind to inspect and report on personal thoughts/feelings Voluntarism; the idea that the mind had the capacity to organize mental contents into high-level thought processes Apperception; the process by which mental elements + experiences are organized and integrated Tridimensional Theory of Emotion; Wundt's explanation for emotions based on three dimensions: pleasure/displeasure, tension/relaxation, excitement/depression

What is the difference between two-point threshold, just noticeable difference, method of limits, and absolute threshold?

Two-point threshold; the threshold at which two simultaneous points of stimulation identical in intensity can be distinguished as separate instead of as one Just noticeable threshold; the smallest difference in the amount/intensity of two stimuli that is required for a person to tell that the two stimuli differ in amount/intensity Method of limits; having participants adjust a variable stimulus until they perceive it to be equal to a constant standard stimulus Absolute threshold; the lowest level or intensity at which a stimulus can be detected by one of the senses

What psychologist is known for his self-experiments with memory; what did he discover in relation to memory; and what did he create that is not related to memory?

Hermann Ebbinghaus; discovered that nonsense material is harder to learn Forgetting curve; the greatest decline in learning of information occurring the closest in time to the point of learning Serial position effect; the tendency of a person to recall the first + last items in a series best Effect is composed of two parts: primacy and recency effect; primacy effect is the tendency to remember the first item list, and recency is the tendency to remember the last item in the list Spacing effect; the observation that the learning of information (memory) is better when spread out over time rather than from a single session

Which psychologist developed Act Psychology, and what is Act Psychology?

Franz Brentano Act psychology is focused on mental activities or processes as a whole (ex. seeing) rather than on the sensory contents (ex. that which is seen) Focused on the act of experiencing rather than the specific elements being experienced; later influenced the development of Gestalt Psychology

The method of introspection associated with Carl Stumpf


The main contributions of Oswald Külpe to psychology

Systematic experimental introspection, imageless thought, + mental set

What did Titchener's structuralism (or structural psychology) generally focus on and promote, and how did Titchener's ideas and approach differ from Wundt?

The goal of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its component parts + thus determine its structure Differed from Wundt on introspection; focused more on reducing consciousness to elements + combinations of elements than on the processes of actively synthesizing + organizing those elements

Which branch of science did Titchener compare to consciousness?


Titchener's three elementary states of consciousness

Sensations, images, and emotions