Chapter 28- Green Algae and Land Plants

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Lignin

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32 Terms

1

Lignin

________ is a complex polymer built from six- carbon rings.

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2

Natural selection

________ favored early land plants with three main adaptations that solved the drying problem by:

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3

Individuals

________ are anchored to soil, rocks, or ee bark by structures called rhizoids.

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4

Sporopollenin

________ is a waxy substance (similar to cuticle) that encases the spores and pollen of modern land plants and helps them resist drying.

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5

Angiosperms

________ can be annual (have a single growing season) or perennial (live for many years), with life spans ranging from a few weeks to several thousand years.

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6

Green algae

________ and land plants provide ecosystem services because they enhance the life- supporting attributes of the atmosphere, soil, surface water, and other physical components of an ecosystem.

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7

Megaspores

________ develop into female gametophytes, which produce eggs by mitosis.

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8

Microspores

________ develop into male gametophytes, which produce sperm by mitosis.

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9

stoma

A(n) ________ consists of an opening surrounded by specialized guard cells.

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10

Megasporangia

________ (singular: ________) are spore- producing structures that produce megaspores.

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11

Microsporangia

________ (singular: ________) are spore- producing structures that produce microspores.

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12

carpel

A(n) ________ contains a protective structure called an ovary, where the ovules are found.

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13

tough protective

A seed consists of an embryo and a store of nutritive tissue, surrounded by a(n) ________ layer.

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14

Flowers

________ are attractive because they provide pollinators with food in the form of protein- rich pollen or a sugar rich fluid known as nectar.

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15

Cuticle

________ is a watertight barrier that coats the aboveground parts of today s land plants and helps them resist drying.

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16

Tracheids

________ are long, thin, tapering cells that have the following components:

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17

Spores

________ were produced that resist drying.

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18

Heterospory

________ is the production of two distinct types of spores by different structures.

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19

gametangium

The egg- producing ________ is called an archegonium.

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20

alternation of generations

When ________ occurs, individuals exist in either a multicellular haploid or diploid phase.

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21

Homospory

________ is the production of a single type of spore.

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22

Gametes

________ were produced in complex, multicellular structures.

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23

sperm nuclei

The involvement of two ________ is called double fertilization.

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24

Vessel elements

________ are shorter and wider than tracheids, and their upper and lower ends have perforations where both the primary and secondary cell walls are missing.

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25

Pollination

________ is the transfer of pollen from one plants stamen to another plant s carpel.

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26

heterosporous seed plants

In ________, the microspore germinates to form a tiny male gametophyte that is surrounded by a tough coat of sporopollenin, resulting in a pollen grain.

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27

physical components

An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a particular area, along with ________ of the environment such as the atmosphere, precipitation, surface water, sunlight, soil, and nutrient.

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28

vascular plant

In the stems and branches of some ________ species, tracheids or a combination of tracheids and vessels form the extremely strong support material called wood.

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29

adaptive radiation

A(n) ________ occurs when a single lineage produces a large number of descendant species that are adapted to a wide variety of habitats.

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30

gametangium

The sperm- producing ________ is called an antheridium.

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31

Microsporangia (singular

microsporangium) are spore-producing structures that produce microspores

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32

Megasporangia (singular

megasporangium) are spore-producing structures that produce megaspores

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