Period 5 Apush Study Cards

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Manifest Destiny

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33 Terms

1

Manifest Destiny

The 19th-century belief that the United States was destined to expand its territory across the North American continent.

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2

James K

The 11th President of the United States who played a key role in manifest destiny and westward expansion.

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3

"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!"

The slogan reflecting American expansionist desires to claim the entire Oregon Territory up to the latitude line of 54°40'.

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4

Texas Annexation

The incorporation of the Republic of Texas into the United States in 1845, leading to tensions with Mexico and triggering the Mexican-American War.

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5

Mexican-American War

The conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848, resulting in significant territorial gains for the U.S.

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6

Wilmot Proviso

The proposal to prohibit slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico during the Mexican-American War, heightening sectional tensions.

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7

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Mexican Cession

The treaty ending the Mexican-American War and resulting in Mexico ceding territories to the U.S.

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8

Gadsden Purchase

The acquisition of a strip of land from Mexico in 1853 to facilitate the construction of a southern transcontinental railroad.

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9

Ostend Manifesto

The diplomatic proposal suggesting the United States should purchase Cuba from Spain or consider taking it by force, raising concerns about Southern expansion and slavery.

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10

Compromise of 1850, including Fugitive Slave Act details

The series of laws aimed at addressing the sectional divide over slavery, including the controversial Fugitive Slave Act.

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11

Uncle Tom's Cabin

Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel portraying the harsh realities of slavery, fueling anti-slavery sentiments in the North.

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12

Kansas-Nebraska Act (and its relation to the Missouri Compromise)

The act that repealed the Missouri Compromise and established popular sovereignty in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska.

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13

Republican Party

The political party that emerged in the mid-1850s, opposing the spread of slavery into new territories.

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14

Bleeding Kansas

The violent clashes and political turmoil in the Kansas Territory during the 1850s, foreshadowing the Civil War.

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15

Charles Sumner

A senator from Massachusetts and prominent anti-slavery figure who was brutally attacked on the Senate floor.

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16

Dred Scott Supreme Court decision

The 1857 Supreme Court decision ruling that enslaved individuals remained property, heightening tensions between North and South.

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17

John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry

Abolitionist John Brown's failed attempt to start a slave rebellion in 1859, increasing tensions between North and South.

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18

Election of 1860

The election that led to Abraham Lincoln's presidency and prompted Southern states to secede from the Union.

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19

Crittenden Compromise

A failed proposal to prevent Southern secession by extending the Missouri Compromise line and protecting slavery.

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20

Emancipation Proclamation

President Lincoln's 1863 proclamation declaring enslaved individuals in Confederate-held territories to be free.

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21

Gettysburg Address

President Lincoln's 1863 speech emphasizing equality and national unity.

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22

Reasons the Union defeated the Confederacy in Civil War

Factors contributing to the Union's victory, including industrial superiority, effective leadership, and a larger population.

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23

Homestead Act

The 1862 act providing public land to settlers for a small fee to encourage westward expansion.

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24

13th Amendment

The 1865 amendment abolishing slavery in the United States.

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25

Freedmen's Bureau

The federal agency established in 1865 to assist and protect newly freed African Americans during Reconstruction.

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26

Black Education

Efforts to establish schools and educational opportunities for newly freed African Americans during Reconstruction.

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27

Lincoln's 10% Plan

President Lincoln's Reconstruction plan offering amnesty to Southern states that pledged loyalty to the Union and accepted the abolition of slavery.

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28

Wade-Davis Bill (1864)

A more stringent Reconstruction proposal requiring a majority of white males in Southern states to take an "ironclad" oath of allegiance and guarantee equal rights for freedmen.

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29

Andrew Johnson versus the Radical Republicans (including Impeachment and Senate Trial)

President Johnson's clashes with Radical Republicans over Reconstruction policies, leading to his impeachment in 1868.

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30

Black Codes

Discriminatory laws enacted by Southern states in the post-Civil War era, limiting the rights and freedoms of African Americans.

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31

Civil Rights Acts of 1866

The first federal laws defining citizenship and affirming equal protection for all citizens.

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32

Reconstruction Act of 1867

The act dividing the Southern states into military districts and requiring them to guarantee black male suffrage and ratify the 14th Amendment.

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33

14th Amendment

The 1868 amendment granting citizenship and equal protection under the

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