Bio 2 Unit Quiz

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Biology

53 Terms

1

matter

anything that has mass and takes up space, made of atoms

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2

atoms

the smallest unit of matter that can't be broken down (w/o releasing charged subatomic particles)

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3

solid, liquid, and gas

What are the three forms of matter?

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4

solid

definite shape and volume, particles are close together and organized, particles vibrate, and the highest density

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5

liquid

no definite shape but definite volume, particles have some space between them, particles slide past each other middle density

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6

gas

no definite shape or volume, particles are very spaced out w/ little to no organization, particles are fast moving, the least density

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7

ions

atoms have a +/- charge

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8

mass number

protons + neutrons, the weight of atom

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9

atomic number

the number of protons

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10

protons, neutrons, and electrons

What are the three charges that make an atom?

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11

protons

positive charge (+), located in the nucleus, determines which element it is, have about the same weight has neutrons

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12

neutrons

no charge, located in the nucleus, the change of ______ means the change to the mass number, same elements with different mass (isotope)

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13

electrons

negative charge (-), no weight, number of electrons change (ions), located in electron cloud (shells)

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14

2, 8

How many electrons are in the first shell? How many electrons are in all the other shells?

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15

cation

a positively charged ion

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16

anion

a negatively charged ion

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17

element

a substance that can't be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means

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18

compound

a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio

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19

atomic mass

the weight (protons + neutrons)

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20

isoptope

an atom that has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons

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21

valance shell

number of electrons present in the outermost shell, determines the chemical properties of an atom

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22

chemical bonds

when two atoms with incomplete outer shells interact (give up, share, and accept electrons), they will both end up with a completed out shell and then the atoms stay close together

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23

covalent bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule, the strongest bond, between nonmetals (right side of PT)

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24

valance

bonding capacity of an atom

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25

molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

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26

electronegativity

measure of its attraction for shared electrons

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27

non polar covalent bond

equal sharing of electrons, equal electronegativity of two atoms, no charge

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28

polar covalent bond

a bond when both atoms differ in electronegativity, unequal sharing of electrons, slightly positive and slightly negative

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29

ionic bond

receiving/losing of an electron, metal with a nonmetal, a large difference in electronegativity, middle bond

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30

hydrogen bond

must be paired with two polar molecules, function in proteins, properties of water, weakest

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31

they have slow particles, more stable

What happens to hydrogen bonds in cold temp?

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32

fast particles, least stable

What happens to hydrogen bonds in high temp?

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33

solvent

a substance that does the dissolving

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34

solute

substance that gets dissolved

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35

solution

solute + solvent

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36

polar (attracted to each other) and ionic (the charge of the bond)

polar bonds can dissolve what other bonds and why?

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37

intramolecular

existing or taking place within a molecule (covalent and ionic bonds)

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38

intermolecular

existing or acting between molecules (hydrogen bond)

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39

non polar bonds (they have no charge)

What can polar bonds no dissolve?

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40

surface tension

intermolecular force, a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

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41

high specific heat

it needs to absorb a lot of energy before its temperature changes

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42

chemical reactions

breaking existing chemical bonds

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43

cohesion

the tendency of a molecule to stick together (trees get their nutrients)

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44

adhesion

clinging of one substance to another

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45

thermal energy

the energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules

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46

acid

a substance that donates hydrogen ions to solutions

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47

base

substance that reduces the hydrogen ion

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48

pH scale

how acidic or basic a solution is

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49

buffers

organic substances that maintain a constant pH over a given range by neutralizing the effects of hydrogen ions.

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50

water

What form on Earth has all three matters naturally

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51

they already have a full outer shell

why don't noble gases form covalent bonds

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52

metals don't hold onto electrons very well

Why don't metals form covalent bonds

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53

the ice is less dense than the water, the water is heavier so it displaces the ice

Why can ice float on water even though it's a solid?

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