Test Review: Andrew Jackson, Social Changes

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Two Political Parties

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51 Terms

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Two Political Parties

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Free Soil

An anti-slavery party that supported the Wilmot Proviso's declaration against slavery in territories acquired from Mexico.

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Nat Turner

Led a violent slave rebellion in Hampton, VA, killing white people and collecting slaves for his army. He was eventually captured and executed.

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4

Harriet Tubman

An escaped slave who became a conductor on the Underground Railroad, helping thousands of slaves reach freedom.

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5

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Allowed Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether they would be slave or free states (popular sovereignty)

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Bleeding Kansas

A period of violent conflict in Kansas between pro-slavery and abolitionist forces (guerilla warfare)

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Missouri Compromise

In 1819, the Legislature was balanced (11 slave states and 11 free states). Missouri becoming a state would upset this balance so legislation made Missouri a slave state and Maine a non-slave state. This compromise also prohibited all new states from the Louisiana Purchase from becoming slave states.

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Compromise of 1850

A.      CA enters union as free state

B.      NM is territory and Texan border stays same

C.       Set up Utah without slavery regulations

D.      New Fugitive Slave Act

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Fugitive Slave Act

Authorized the seizure and return of runaway slaves and imposed penalties on those who helped them escape.

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10

Underground Railroad

vast network of people/places that helped slaves escape and travel North where they’re free

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Dred Scott case

A slave who sued for his freedom (on the terms that legislation said anyone could sue for wrongful enslavement and if a slave was brought to a free state they became free) but was denied by the Supreme Court, fueling abolitionist sentiment.

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Lowell Mill

Combined factory and town where women initially worked but were pushed out by by immigrant workers.

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13

Steamboat

Invented by Fulton, it improved trade and provided greater access to goods for ports.

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Telegraph

Invented by Samuel Morse (Morse Code), it allowed for the easier spread of ideas

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Cotton Gin

Invented by Eli Whitney, it increased the demand for slavery by making cotton production more profitable.

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Reaper

A machine used for harvesting crops, revolutionizing agriculture.

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Immigration (Know Nothing Party)

A political party that opposed immigration, particularly targeting Catholic immigrants.

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18

Cult of Domesticity

An ideology that promoted women's role in the home and emphasized their domestic responsibilities.

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19

2nd Great Awakening

A religious revival movement that emphasized personal salvation and social reform.

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20

Seneca Falls

The location of the first women's rights convention in 1848, where the Declaration of Sentiments was drafted.

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21

Temperance (Carrie Nation)

A leader in the temperance movement who advocated for the prohibition of alcohol to combat domestic violence.

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22

Frederick Douglass

An escaped slave who became a prominent abolitionist and advocate for civil rights.

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23

Life of slaves on a plantation

Slaves were treated as property, forced to do hard labor under the supervision of overseers, and were enslaved until death.

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Trail of Tears

President Jackson's policy that forcibly removed Native Americans from their lands in Georgia, resulting in a deadly journey to Oklahoma (disease)

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25

Indian Removal Act

A law passed by President Jackson that authorized the forced removal of Native Americans from their ancestral lands (Jackson wanted their land)

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Nullification crisis

Nullification: any state could nullify federal laws. Caused by the Tariff of 1828, Calhoun wanted to nullify the tariff (in SC), but this caused President Jackson to create a Force Bill (he could stop Calhoun by using troops)

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Jackson and the Bank: Panic of 1837

President Jackson's opposition to the Second National Bank, which led to the Panic of 1837 (Caused by refusing extension of loans, failure of the wheat crop, depression in England, Jackson opposing 2nd national bank. State banks closed, jobless workforce, wages cut.)

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Jackson and the Veto

President Jackson vetoed more bills than any previous president, asserting his executive power (“King Jackson”)

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Tariff of 1828

A protective tariff that raised taxes on imported goods, causing economic tensions between the North (benefitted the north) and South (negatively affected the south because they couldn’t sell cotton), caused nullification crisis

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Sectionalism

The division of the United States along regional lines, particularly between the North and South.

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Republican Party

A political party founded in 1854 that opposed the expansion of slavery and supported other progressive causes.

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32

Brooks-Sumner Fight

A violent altercation between Congressman Preston Brooks and Senator Charles Sumner over the issue of slavery.

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Wilmot-Proviso

A proposal that sought to ban slavery in any territories acquired from Mexico, but it was never passed.

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34

Erie Canal

A man-made waterway that connected the Great Lakes to the Hudson River, facilitating trade and transportation.

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Factories

Industrial establishments where goods are produced on a large scale using machinery and a division of labor.

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Lincoln-Douglass Debate

A series of debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas during the 1858 Illinois Senate campaign.

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Crittenden Plan

A failed proposal to prevent secession by extending the Missouri Compromise line and protecting slavery in the territories.

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Harpers Ferry (John Brown's Raid)

An unsuccessful attempt by abolitionist John Brown to start a slave rebellion by seizing a federal arsenal in Virginia.

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Carrie Nation

Temperance leader, destroyed bars with hatchet, formed Women’s Christian Temperance Union (=wanted prohibition to stop domestic violence)

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Dorothea Dix

Reformed prisons and asylums, created new hospitals for the mentally ill separate from criminals

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41

Sojourner Truth

A former slave ran away and a family buys her freedom, moves to NY, and gives speeches on the evils of slavery (famous speech = ”Ain’t I a Woman”)

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42

Lucretia Mott

Quaker helped form the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society, an early women’s rights founder, wrote “Discourse on Women”

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Lucy Stone

Suffragette, college degree, founder of the American Woman Suffrage Association

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Amelia Bloomer

Suffragette, bloomers (=women’s flowy pants) named after her, edited 1st newspaper for women

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Susan B Anthony

Suffragette, worked with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Seneca Falls Convention, women’s rights

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Harriet Tubman

Conductor in Underground Railroad escaped slave, helped slaves reach freedom in North or Canada

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47

Samuel Slater

Built 1st factories in the US, cotton mills, American Industrial Revolution, water-powered cotton mill

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48

William Lloyd Garison

American Anti-Slavery Society, called for the immediate emancipation of slaves without compensation for slave owners

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John Calhoun

Pro-slavery, nullification, states’ rights

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Henry Clay

Compromise of 1850, senator and representative, “Great Compromiser”, the enemy of Andrew Jackson

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Eli Whitney

Cotton gin (=picks seeds out of cotton so people start growing more cotton) increases slavery

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